from wood construction materials are considered to be the best pine and spruce, but also apply aspen, alder, linden and other breeds.
During construction requires various logs, poles, planks, beams and so on. D. (Fig. 1).The quality they are divided into three classes, measured in cubic meters.
At home wood must be dry, beetle-affected eucnemidae.The raw wood can create a house-mushroom - a dangerous pest, the struggle which is very labor intensive.However, it must be borne in mind that when drying wood shrinks, warps and cracks.Humidity green wood is more than 50%, semi-dry - no more than 23, air-dry - and dry 18 - 7%.All building structures are commonly used air-dry wood.To obtain such a timber, it is kept under cover for at least a year, and need to dry for at least three years.
Fig.1 . timber and lumber used in the construction of a - plate;b - dvuhkantny timber;in - not edging board;g - QUARTER;d - squared timber
Lumber - plates, rods, boards, and so on. D. Boards can be not edging, Half, cut, planed and planed, tongued and grooved, in the fourth, and so on. N., The thickness of them can be from 13 to 100 mm.
Logs - their length ranges from 4 to 9 m, thickness cut - 100 - 260 mm.
Plywood consists of several layers of veneer.It is made with sheets of different sizes with thickness from 1 to 12 mm.The quality is divided into three classes.
Parquet made of hardwood: oak, beech, ash, maple and others. Apply for flooring.
Parquet board - this is a common pine decking with glued thin strips of hardwood.
Harvesting, storage and preservation of timber
For residential buildings, it is recommended to harvest only healthy wood - no rot and wormholes.From the forest timber shall be removed as soon as possible, in the cortex to store no more than two weeks.Removing the bark from the upper and lower cuts should be left bands from the bark of a width not exceeding 10 cm;This prevents cracking of the ends.
Keep timber necessary on higher ground having a drain, cleaned of dust, grass, disinfected with a 10% solution of iron sulphate.The same solution can be treated lumber and logs.Logs and boards are stacked and lined necessarily in such a way that between them there was a space for through ventilation.On top of laid material is desirable to cover from rain and snow.Bark, sawdust, shavings, wood chips should quickly burn because they are carriers of beetles eucnemidae.
If caught rotten wood material or the bugs, it is better not to apply in the case, and immediately transfer to a special quarantine section, remote from the first no less than 30m.Contaminated timber immediately treated with antiseptics (you can buy ready-made, but we will consider other options) - special chemical compounds or the following substances:
1. A mixture of turpentine and kerosene (in equal parts).
2. The solution of DDT in turpentine or kerosene (10 pieces of DDT dissolved in 90 parts of turpentine or kerosene and give it brew for a few days).
4. 1% solution of technical BHC (1 part BHC dissolved in 99 parts of kerosene, turpentine, mineral oil, diesel oil, etc.. N.).
Antiseptic recommended to inject into the flight hole, and then applied with a brush.This should be done in two stages with a break of 1 - 2 hours. The infected wood is best to handle the spring or early summer, and repeat two to three weeks, since at this time the larvae of beetles come close to the surface.In the protection of wood from rotting antiseptic composition may be different.The easiest - a 10% solution of iron or copper sulfate, or zinc chloride (1 kg of one of these chemicals is dissolved in 10 liters of water).Widely used as a 3% solution of sodium fluoride.These antiseptics are used only for processing structures under the roof or indoors.
Consider one of the methods of processing wood preservative.Wooden barrel half filled with 20% solution of copper sulphate or zinc chloride, is lowered to, for example, those poles at their ends, which will be in the ground, and kept for at least two days.After that, take out the poles and put the shed on the vertical 30 - 40 days, but always ends up soaked.Treated this way the ends of the poles, having spent five years in the ground, do not have even a trace of rot.
to combat rot and use such a simple way how the fire burning on the part of the column, which will be located in the ground.Sometimes burn and lower sides of the accountant wreaths at a depth of 15 mm, coated with their bitumen (tar), wrap the tar paper or roofing material.But you can only burn.
To avoid poisoning when working with any antiseptic precautions must be taken.Mouth closed bandage gauze, folded in several layers.After work, it is necessary to well wash hands and face, and even better - a fully clean up.
general beetle-infested eucnemidae or fungus is better not to use wood in the construction and burn.