tree - a living material and fastidious.Wooden house provides draft and able to behave more capriciously.It needs grooming.So today, as demand laminated veneer lumber - a material that has almost all the advantages of natural solid wood, but is much more flexible.
No logs or flitches or solid timber construction can not be called because the design is characterized by mutual arrangement of parts, and is estimated by some clear parameters.Round logs, but it can be called design, but only as a wall material.A house - this is also overlap, and truss system, and more.Natural wood can have 15 different defects, each of which affects the viability of the house.What here strict parameters!
And any laminated material have documentation that indicates the density, humidity, etc.House of glued structures are not always done somehow, and the results of calculations.And you can be sure that everything will be okay.Glued laminated timber does not lead, glued beam will not crack, glued farm does
In addition, the use of glued structures opens up almost limitless possibilities for the architect, as it allows to play with space, oblivious to the limitations on the area of overlap, uneven load on the walls, the arches, etc.
Already design engineer any note, the proposal reinforces the architect of its design goals.And there are almost no restrictions.Yes, you can build a big house and a complex of solid wood.But what will happen to him then, after 20-30-50-100 years is quite difficult to predict.In dealing with glued wooden structures, can be calm.Nothing unexpected happens.
name "glulam" inaccurately also because as a wall material used is also glued timber, and even glued D - log (outside the house looks like a log cabin, and the inside has a smooth wall).All wall materials (and board, and a log) certainly profiled (given cross-sectional shape), the profiles can be very different.Profiling not only provides a snug fit (adhesion) rims future home, but often removes the residual internal stress, thereby completely eliminating the possibility of deformation of the timber during operation.But
!This high technology material involves proper, almost mechanical engineering, precision work with him.That this is the main specificity of mounting houses from glued structures.The rest of the methods of work on the construction of such houses is not much different from those in the construction of wooden houses of other types.
Unlike solid timber or laminated veneer lumber logs does not change its shape during use, does not crack, has a higher strength and lower thermal conductivity, a high quality of facial surfaces (walls look monolithic and does not require additional finishing), and minimal shrinkage in height andIt can significantly reduce construction time.In the production of glued wooden structures used only environmentally friendly water-based adhesive.
Conditions for success
The first condition - the quality of the source material.Construction of houses of glued wooden structures today are engaged in many local and Finnish companies.Finns tend to have their own production, our own builders often place orders for plants in Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Novgorod and other northern areas.
Anyway glulam must comply with certain requirements entirely on manufacturing techniques, dimensional accuracy, quality slats and glue joints, humidity, storage conditions, etc.And then say, the majority of Russian enterprises producing laminated structures today are equipped with imported equipment.
Condition second - season.Generally speaking, assembly houses from glued beams can be made at any time of the year.But it's best to do this in summer and winter.Since the finished material has a moisture content of about 10-12%, in the construction process in wet weather (spring or fall) humidity, this is sure to rise.Of course, there is nothing particularly wrong with that, but still during the drying timber up to 5.5% (it was up to such relative humidity and dry wall eventually) may appear shallow cracks and warping.In the summer is dry and winter snow broom swept, and all cases something.And winter nestrashen fungus.
why some firms are building construction cycle so that in the autumn (spring) accounted for the design work for the winter (summer) - installation, and after them have already roofing, engineering and finishing.Conditions of the third - high production.They must be provided with a set of necessary equipment and cleanliness of the construction site.Cedar, for example, a porous material, and if it is dirty, spots may stay forever.By the way, and for this reason it is best to build in the winter.
There are a lot of subtleties.For example before installation is necessary to process timber preservative against fungus - particularly the combination of "groove-projection", as well as the ends.Conditions fourth - the absolute accuracy of the foundation.Everyone knows how important it is carefully put the first crown of the wooden house.In the case of laminated veneer lumber, where high accuracy is made every detail is of paramount importance.
In the event of the axes of the foundation of a few millimeters can simply assemble the house.And if you still gather, the house will be blown.Conditions fifth - control.It is especially important when carrying out work on the installation of the hidden parts of critical structures.Links beams, trusses, supporting frames must be controlled first.It then checks are no longer feasible.
Properties glued structures allows their use even in the construction of large-span buildings (eg, swimming pools).Glued beams can reach a length of 20 m and have sufficient strength to withstand without installing intermediate supports.A particularly advantageous use of laminated materials is not closed by the eye structures, since in this case does not require any processing.Moreover, laminated materials are susceptible to damage by fungi.
the whole assembly of the house of laminated veneer lumber is not unlike any assembly of wooden houses.Let us dwell on a few points that may cause differences.First question: what is preferable - the designer or planed?The majority of Finnish companies and some of our companies, especially those with their own production, design documentation is sent to the plant, where the future house is made almost polnostyu.Tam also made pre-assembly.After that, the house is delivered as a kit of parts for land already in place and collected again.
In computer design even pre-assembled at the factory is not required, and the finished package can be assembled on the construction site without any pre-assembly and fitting.The majority of Russian enterprises producing glued constructions, fairly loaded.This is especially true of machine tools for cutting cups so sometimes prolonged production time set.
In addition, companies are not always willing to take up the production of complex individual orders, preferring to standard designs.It is understandable - no need to reconfigure the line.For these reasons, many construction companies bought plants constructor only in simple cases, preferring to cut the house in place.Then delivered to the construction site is not ready to set home and planed - as a wall beam, so many bars, crossbars, etc.
Manual assembly substantially unleashes builders: you can, for example, the first to make the crowns of larch beams and walls - made of cedar (it is more porous and therefore has a lower thermal conductivity).In addition, the manual assembly allows the most technically complex design solutions, for which the plant can not take.And the customer is already in the process of mounting a sudden want to change something, for manual assembly is made much easier, faster and cheaper.Another thing is that on the court in this case it is necessary to organize a mini-shop.The plates are cut with special mobile templates.
And of course, the quality of finished products is largely dependent on the skill of craftsmen.A different approach to the company and such an issue as the contraction of crowns between them.Some companies (mainly Finnish) apply the system of threaded rods that run through the walls from top to bottom.Several bars heels attracted to each other nuts.
Another method - the use of "grouse" (large-head screw key).They are twisted into a pre-drilled holes in a staggered (a distance of 1.5-2 m) flush with the surface of the rod.It is believed that, firstly a contraction boards together makes the house more durable, and secondly, the pellet regulates home subsequently reducing it to a minimum.But this method is and opponents.They justify their position by the fact that the wooden home should be wood, and metal is just superfluous, a foreign element in the living tree.Not to mention the fact that the metal is hard, and over time (maybe more) as a result of long-term mechanical stress is a wooden body begins to slowly destroy the house.But it's a moot point.
As for precipitation, then it completely is still not resolved, you can only reduce, and even then only mechanical component.In the fallout from the drying screed will not affect any.So, these companies hold together the crowns at home together exclusively wooden pins that do not pull together, but only prevent horizontal movement of the beam.Another thing is that sometimes any wall of the house has to artificially "upsetting."That's when it makes sense to use a "grouse" or pins, and even the wall specially dried.
Third question: Do I need a sealer?In fact, the need for sealing between the rims of the house is largely dependent on the geometry of the profile.If the wedge-shaped profile, ie ridges and grooves have the form of a trapezoid, the seal is not required, in principle - and so the connection is strong enough and warm.In other cases, the seal is most often used, but without fanaticism, because it is too large layer can adversely affect the geometry of the wall.Some companies prefer foamed materials (for example, polyethylene foam), others - natural materials (jute, oakum, hemp, flax).Applied and geotextiles.Which is better, we do not undertake to judge.
Sometimes in the middle of the top bar is done long longitudinal groove, creates an air pad inside the wall.It is believed that this increased thermal resistance of the building envelope and the timber is better "breathing".Some firms, central grooves filled polyethylene foam tape.Typically, in this case, tightening the wall studs or "grouse".It must be said that the surface of laminated veneer lumber is a very high quality - even with the surface of the battens find quite difficult.In the upper layers are best, without knots, slats.
Glued laminated timber can have a profile of your application.It is on the geometry of the cross section largely depends on the use or non-use of a sealant between the rims.
material should be stored at a construction site in a strictly hygienic conditions.It should exclude any possibility of contact with the lumber of fungal microorganisms, so it can not be put not only on the damp ground, but also for example to enclose under piles raw boards.And in general, it is better to keep away from the laminated structure of rough wood.However, this applies to any construction timber.
construction of houses from glued structures require appropriate qualifications of masters.Therefore we should not for reasons of cost charging its construction homegrown teams gathered with the world on a string.There needs specialized and highly professional company.But your house and stand for a hundred years.