Plaster also performs several functions: sanitary, protective, constructive and decorative.Sanitary appointment plaster layer - is to get a smooth surface that can be wallpapered, paint, tile oblitsevat and so on. N.
-Protective constructive function of plaster is that it protects the wall from the fire, moisture, keeps inthe house warm.
With plaster on a finished surface, you can create a variety of decorative effects, this is the function of decorative plaster.At the same time the surface of the plaster layer can be given a certain texture, use different shades of paint, special materials and attachments.
Plaster - a preliminary surface preparation, the initial stage of walls, ceiling and floor (if in the future it will be tile stones).The quality plastering work, the proper selection of materials depends on the overall result of repair, painting and decorating.
Materials for plastering.
To prepare the plaster, you'll need cementing materials, aggregates, water, glue, pigments and auxiliary
By astringent materials include clay, lime, cement, gypsum, etc... All they have to be stored in a dry place during prolonged storage are losing their strength.
To prepare the plaster is only slaked lime , and extinguish it must be good (to sustain the right time).Otherwise it will remain unslaked small lumps, which later will extinguish plaster, forming on its surface defects.
Building lime is quicklime lump (lime, quicklime), ground into powder and slaked (hydrated lime).Quicklime, in turn, is divided according to bystrogasyaschuyusya blanking time (within 8 minutes) srednegasyaschuyusya (no more than 25 minutes) and medlennogasyaschuyusya (over 25 minutes).
extinguish lime best in wooden boxes, barrels, worse - in a metal container (tank, pelvis).Quick-slacking lime poured into a box with pre-poured water, the water should cover the whole lime.Once above the water vapor will be added and the water still mixed.After the slaked lime is diluted with water to obtain a so-called milk of lime, which is strained through a sieve and store in tvorilnoy pit lined with planks.
Srednegasyaschuyusya lime necessary to fill up in a dry box at 1/4 of its height, and then add water (up to & amp; & amp; / 2 of its height).After 15-20 minutes, stirring constantly, pour the water, and already zagashennuyu lime diluted with water to the consistency of milk, strain and pour into tvorilnuyu pit.
falls asleep in a box medlennogasyaschuyusya lime poured over the top with water from a watering can.Once on a piece of lime, quicklime will crack - signs of extinction, gradually add water, stirring and old to do everything quickly so as not to cool the lime.
merged into a lime pit tvorilnuyu the next day asleep sifted river sand, then the ground (a layer of no more than 50 cm) and maintained from three to more weeks.
To plastering can be used and waste textile, leather, chemical industry, replacing lime - podzol, okshara, carbide sludge.
Clay for solutions must be thoroughly cleaned to remove impurities.To do this, it is diluted with water to a liquid state, strain through a fine sieve, defend and drained the excess water.
Building plaster (ground and calcined gypsum) is added to plaster solution (lime or clay) to accelerate the process of setting and increase the strength of the plaster layer.The normal setting time of dissolved gypsum - from 4 to 30 minutes (for 30 minutes completely harden).
can prolong setting plaster for about 20 minutes when you add it retarder - a mixture of hide glue or bone (1-2% of the total weight of gypsum), borax (5-10%) and lime paste (10-20%).Bone glue previously soaked in water (in the ratio 1: 5) for 15 hours.Then, in the adhesive mass was added 1 mass part of lime paste, stirring, boil for 5-6 hours.The gypsum retarder solution is added, previously dissolved in water (1: 100) and the term of its setting will increase to 1 hour.
Cements - the best binders, hardening both in air and in water.Under normal conditions the cement setting should occur no earlier than 45 minutes, to end no later than 12 hours.Finally, the cement hardens within a month (28-30 days).
as placeholders used Sands (heavy cold and fillers), slag, pumice, charcoal (light and warm padding).The best sand for making plaster - a river.This is the clean sand, which does not require further purification, does not reduce the strength of the solution.Sea, ravine, rock sands are usually heavily contaminated with salts, clay, they should be washed before using.
Distinguish large (grain size 2-5 mm), medium (grain size 0.5-2 mm) and fine (0 to 5mm) sands.In plastering most commonly used medium sands, and skim solutions for grouting plaster and obtaining a surface with fine-grained texture is prepared with fine sand.
Slag is added to plasters for plastering premises for the purpose of insulation, a layer of plaster in this case should reach a thickness of 3 cm.
Petty charcoal (grain size up to 5 mm) or pumice (grain size 2-5 mm) can be replacedconventional sand for making warm (serve for heat insulation of premises) plaster.
Pigments are added to solutions for the plaster.
Auxiliary materials include insulation materials for insulating walls, partitions, and also makes them less zvukopronitsaemymi: felt, matting, burlap, thick paper (glassine).All insulation materials must be clean and dry, contaminated sites can come out through the layer of plaster, forming defects on painted or wallpapered surface.
To plaster better mated to a smooth surface, it is done through a rough notch, printing plaster lath, used for the same purpose, wire mesh, attached to the surface of the plaster nails.
For internal plastering can be used clay, lime, lime, gypsum, lime, clay, cement, cement-lime mortar.
All materials for the solutions need to pre-sift or strain through a sieve (cell cross-section 3x3 mm) of lime and clay to prepare the dough, diluted with water.A solution in any box, the depth of which is not less than 10-20 cm, stirring paddle length of about 1 m.
Ready solution should be well mixed (in the corners of the box should not be unmixed particles of filler or binder), to have a homogeneous structure, welladhere to the surface of the paddle and have the necessary quality for plastering fat content (characteristic for clay, lime, clay and lime mortars) and strength.
Subject recipe you have obtained a normal solution, ie solutions of the normal fat content.Fat content can be determined by means of paddles.A solution of normal fat content slightly sticks to the paddle.If the solution adheres strongly, it is bold, it is necessary to add some filler;if mixing the solution does not adhere to the paddle, so it is lean solution, it is necessary to add a binding agent - clay and lime.
To prepare mortar take part 1 (materials metered volume parts) of lime paste and 1-5 parts of sand (sand is determined by the amount added in the process of mixing the solution and depends on the fat content of lime).First, in the lime putty added some sand, which simplifies the work of kneading solution, and water, stirred to avoid lumps.Then small portions of injected sand, add water, stirring until the solution as long as it does not acquire a normal fat content and high density.
If this solution is planned to add plaster (lime-gypsum solution), it makes it more dense (you can put a slide).
Clay solution is not strong enough, so if it is used and for interior work, then cover with a layer of lime or lime-plaster solution.To increase the strength in the clay solution was added lime, gypsum or cement.
Lime-clay solution is prepared from 1 part clay dough (clay, diluted with water to a liquid state), 0.4 parts of lime paste and 3-6 parts of sand.Clay and lime putty is mixed, is introduced only after a quantity of sand (not less than 3 parts by volume but not more than 6) to obtain a solution of normal fat content.
Lime-plaster solution .Gypsum is commonly added to the mortar in order to accelerate its grasp.Simple mortar hardens slowly, it is applied very thinly, long dried, which slows down the pace of work.Lime-plaster solution grasped within 3-5 minutes, and 30 minutes fully hardens.However, for beginners to work with such a quick-composition is difficult, it requires some skill and experience.
For lime-gypsum slurry is poured into the box some water is poured on top of a layer of plaster (1 part by volume) and stirred until a homogeneous gypsum slurry.Then it adds mortar (3-4 parts), stirred, but not long enough to the solution loses strength.All work is done quickly, on the preparation of the solution is spent not more than 2-5 minutes.
Given the rapid grasp of the solution, it is cooked in small portions, with use.The amount of water in the solution must also conform to the norm (finished composition has the consistency of thick cream).When it happens excess liquid and slowly-setting solution, giving a loose and fragile plaster;with a deficiency - a thick solution that is difficult to work (flatten, clobber).
Grout. ratio of sand and cement in the solution depends on the type of cement: the higher the mark, the smaller the amount needed.In most cases, the cement slurry is prepared from 1 part cement and 2-3 parts sand.Sand is poured into a box the beds, pour cement on top (even better to do it in several layers), mix this dry mixture until smooth.Then, the mixture was dissolved with water to the desired thickness, stirred use within 1 hour.Long storage of the finished solution leads to a decrease in its strength.
solution, the amount of sand which is brought to 4-5 parts, more durable, but less elastic, with difficulty lies down on the work surface, breaks off.
cement-lime solution different ductility, toughness, adheres well to the surface.For its preparation is made initially homogeneous dry mixture of cement (1 part) and sand (3-5 parts), which then gets mixed with lime milk (0.7-1 part of lime paste, diluted in water to a liquid state) to the desired thickness.
lime, lime, gypsum, clay, lime, cement-lime mortar used for plastering work on the stone and concrete surfaces.Cornices and other protruding parts of the walls, ceiling plaster more durable (strong) cement or cement-lime mortar.Wooden surface plaster lime-plaster, cement-lime mortar.
dry stucco (facing gypsum boards) is carried out in areas with normal temperature and humidity conditions, for masonry and other surfaces.Plasterboard sheets made of cementitious material, cardboard and various additives.Their dimensions vary: length (mm) - 2500, 2700, 2900, 3000, 3300, 3600, 4200, 4500, 4800;Width (mm) - 600, 1200;Thickness (mm) - 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25. Issued and decorative cladding panels for drywall - Drywall sheets, covered in livinilhloridnymi films of various textures, colors and patterns.Fasten sheets of drywall on the mastic or wood, metal frame.