To maintain portions of the solution when applied his shovel on the plastered surface for leveling solution and its spreading to the surface using a falcon - a shield made of 15-16-mm boards or plywood, with a handle in the middle.
To mix solutions, overlaying the solution on a falcon, a hawk spraying the surface, spreading and leveling, cutting fractures and other purposes it's best to use plaster shovel (trowel) .
poluterok - a tool for leveling and smearing of the solution - can be of different sizes.Typically, the basic operations used trowel, cloth which has a length of 700 mm, width 100 mm, thickness 20 mm.For cutting angles suitable spreader smaller: their length 250 mm, width 30-50 mm, a thickness of 5-10 mm.
clobbered plaster using a trowel , which is made of softwood, free from knots.Now you can buy everything in the shops.Cloth floats must be absolutely flat and smooth, sometimes to float
not do in the plastering and without rules - carefully planed long slats, through which checked the evenness of the plaster layer, arranged beacons, get off the slopes.
cleaning the surface plaster from Nabeul, wallpaper, paper, pollution is most conveniently carried out using steel brushes and scrapers .On smooth surfaces apply the broad scrapers, and on uneven - narrow, which leave fewer missed, that is effectively clean the walls or ceilings.
Notch surface is carried out using Trojan Women (chisel, the blade is made of three notches), bush hammering (hammer weight of 1 kg or more, both ends of which are grooved teeth) or zubchatki (chisel with a wider,than Trojan Women, blade, which nasecheno greater number of teeth).
When repairing plaster (rescued places) you'll need all the tools, devices for the new plaster - the rules, float, trowel, hawk and plaster spatula.
Surface preparation plaster
plaster surface must be clean and rough, but in this case the solution will firmly adhere to it, and plaster surface after drying will have no defects.Particular care should be prepared under the surface chipped or loose plaster.
New stone and brick surfaces arranged in pustoshovku (joints between the bricks are filled with a solution) are rough enough, so additional notch to hold them is not necessary.Suffice it obmesti dust from the surface of the construction, well wash the surface with water, if necessary, to remove dirt (oil stains, paints, adhesives).
If joints between the bricks are filled with a solution completely, then at the preparatory stage of their need to deepen in the 0.1-1 cm, cleaned with a steel brush, sweep away the dust and wash.
Rough new concrete surface is cleaned of dust and moisten with water, smooth concrete surface of the notch and contaminated sites cleaned with steel brushes or cut.
Any stone and concrete surfaces, plastered stood more than 1 year, require mandatory incisions, cleaning soot and dust cleaning.All weak, easily beats off at notch or loose surface areas to discourage a firm foundation.
On wooden surfaces Plaster does not overlap, pre-stuffed them piecework or panelboard lath (thin and narrow slats, stuffed in a grid) or reinforced wire mesh.Lath and mesh not only align the wood surface, make it rough, but also perform the insulation function - protects the wood from moisture in the plaster, preventing its decay.
dwell in some detail on how to properly clean the surfaces and a notch.
Cleaning is usually performed with a steel brush.If you strengthen it on a long handle, then the work will be easier because you can hold it with both hands.Brush should be tightly pressed against the surface and move in different directions, to clean off a thin upper contaminated film.Heavily contaminated oil, paint, clay, place cut down on such a depth, on the surface there is not the slightest trace of contamination.
Notch - this applying to the surface a plaster strokes depth of 5 mm and a length of 10-15 mm.At 1 m2 treated surface needs to be done before the 1200 lines or point depressions.The works specially designed for this purpose tools.Bouchard hold the handle with both hands, exactly perpendicular to the surface and do with it on the surface of the hatch, and the point of the recess.Chisel and Trojan Women must be held at an angle of 40 ° to the surface of the notch.Stitches in masonry chisel cut down, holding it at an angle of 45 ° to the surface, striking it with a hammer weighing not less than 1 kg.
sequence of the plastering work depends on the building in which they are held.In brick houses with concrete floors at first filled with a solution seams, and then embroidered rusty plates between floors (ceiling), and then overwritten and all the defects are aligned on the plates.The plaster should be applied on top of the wall from top to bottom, starting with the polishing of the interior angles.
In panel houses primarily obscure mortar joints between panels, rub the inside corners (husk), and then overwritten by defects in the panels.Large defects may resolve by doing the monolithic (continuous) nakryvku and grout surfaces.
In block buildings are filled with solution and rub the joints between the blocks, embroidered seams on the ceiling, rubbed the husks.Minor defects are overwritten, and the solid finish coat and grout held if the blocks are defective.
device is monolithic (solid) of plaster
Stucco consists of several layers, applied alternately.Simple monolithic plaster consists of two layers (scratch coat, soil), enhanced plaster - of the three layers (scratch coat, primer, finish coat), and high quality - of the four layers (scratch coat, primer, two coats of finish coat).Each of the layers of plaster has a certain value.
of spray - the first layer of plaster planned, which ties into the prepared surface and must fill all its pores to increase the adhesive strength of the base (the surface of walls, ceilings) with a layer of plaster.Solution for scratch coat is preparing a liquid, creamy, concrete and masonry (brick) of the surface before the scratch coat wetted with water.The thickness of the scratch coat of concrete and masonry surfaces - up to 5 mm.
Ground - the second layer plaster gallop, which is the main layer of plaster, forms its thickness.If the thickness of the plaster is high, this layer is applied in two or three steps, the thickness of each layer should not exceed 5-7 mm.
nakryvki - the latter, smoothing, a layer of plaster.Apply a thin layer on top of the soil, carefully leveled and overwritten.The layer thickness of finish coat depends on how well aligned the previous layer.A solution for the finish coat of fine sand (sieved through a sieve with an aperture of 1.5 x 1.5 mm).Each subsequent layer of plaster is applied only on the dried out and solidified, the previous layer.Plaster solution was applied to the surface in two ways: by spreading and spraying.
When namazyvanii solution kept at a distance blade thickness of the applied plaster layer and by shifting a portion of the solution, smear layer on its surface.Smears solution can be carried out in the vertical and horizontal directions.
Falcon at namazyvanii convenient solution set at an angle to the surface to one side of it was removed to a distance of 10 cm. The other side of the falcon should be pressed to the surface, but not too close, and the thickness of the applied layer.As we move falcon solution spread on the surface, and elevated side the falcon is approaching it.Spreading the solution on the walls, the falcon are the bottom up.
To smear the ground and can only nakryvku and scratch coat should only be carried out by spraying.Finally leveled solution plastered shoulder blade, using trowel, holding it with both hands at a slight angle to the wall or ceiling.So obtained plaster is not always equally strong, and the shells may have other defects.
throwing by the solution produced a shovel from the falcon from left to right at different levels (at head height, at waist level).In this solution the power hits the surface, fills the roughness and simultaneously compacted, creating the same strength plaster without defects.
scratch coat and the first coat of primer is usually applied by spraying, trying to form a continuous layer with no gaps.If the area is plastered surface is large, it is divided into smaller plots - zahvatki in the joints grips the edge of the solution is cut at an angle of 30 °, and the next portion impose close to the cut edge.When repairing the plaster, when the plastered surface area is small, the solution is more convenient to spread.
For it to be retained on the surface on the blade, it should be made thicker, and the repaired surface drench with water.Nakryvku operate with the same solution from which the previous layers of plaster.Before starting nakryvki ground slightly moistened with water.A layer of skim solution leveled wooden poluter com.After applying the finish coat solution is spread falcon (small areas) or rule (large areas) and overwritten using graters vrazgonku or round.
When grouting round grater tightly pressed against the layer of the solution and make a circular motion counterclockwise, periodically wetting the surface will be overwritten by using a brush with water, not allowing the plaster to dry.
no matter how carefully leveled surface during grouting round, on the plaster surface will still be barely noticeable circular footprints, so when performing high-quality plaster after grouting round spend grout vrazgonku.For this grater tightly pressed against the surface and move it straight up and down.
Sometimes, instead of smoothing the plaster smooth down using floats - wooden trowel 600 mm long, the canvas is nailed to the strip of elastic rubber.Skim coat level poluterkom and then redress the trowel in two directions.The walls floats move first in a vertical direction and then horizontally;first smooth down against the ceiling beam, and then to light (in the direction of the window).
Grout exterior and interior wall corners, door and window slopes, chamfers, Rust - the final stage of plastering work.External corner, which is formed by connecting two walls - it usenok;inner angle formed at places of contiguity ceiling to the walls - husk;acute inner angle formed at the junction of two walls - beveled.
For quality grout these elements requires special tools: poluterok usenochny rule luzgovoe and usenochnoe.At the treatment site, a layer of the solution, and then applied thereto poluterok or rule and moves without a strong push in the right direction to obtain precise, clean lines.
The first will be overwritten husk and Usenko, then proceed to chamfering.If the facet is broad, it is necessary to cut off part of the solution, moisten the surface with water and wipe spreader.Narrow chamfer can be issued poluterkom without removing part of the solution, but always moistened the surface of water.
Door or window slopes - is part of the thickness of the wall (inside or outside), which remained after the installation of door and window frames.Plaster slopes after the installation of door frames, zakonopachivaniya gap between them and the walls and plastering walls.Window slopes operate with the bevel of the boxes to the wall surface.Initially treated upper slope.To do this, measure off gon angle of repose, by marks hang typically placed under a layer of solution of desired thickness and level.Further, the rules hung on vertical slopes, and plaster them with the same solution, some covered the walls.
Rustam get off on applying the plaster with the breakdown of her on the rocks of different sizes, on the ceiling - in the joints of two adjacent slabs.Rust stuffed with steel rulers, cut through the saw and pull the special template.
Wall sheets of drywall.
Instead of plastering solutions - rather laborious and lengthy process - you can prepare walls and ceilings for subsequent finishing with the help of drywall - sheets of plasterboard, fixed to the surface of the mastic or nails (plugs) on a wooden, metal frame.Facing sheets of drywall from the corners of the room is performed in the doorway.
wooden frame made of sticks or planks, the distance between the vertical bars should not be more than 400 mm.Sheets of drywall nailed to the plaster frame or long nails at 200 mm and 20 mm from the edges.Utaplivajut nail heads into the thick sheet of veneer, then certainly shpatljujut and paint over paint.
Metal frame made of profiles, which are fixed to the wall with dowels.Vertical rack set at intervals of 600 mm from each other, dowels pierce through every 1200 mm.Plasterboard is fixed to this frame around the perimeter of self-tapping screws at 300 mm.
When fastening the drywall sheets to paste pre-cleaned surface from dust, dirt, proveshivajut, then set the beacons.The surface is divided into zahvatki whose width is equal to the width of the drywall sheets.Under each zahvatki (i.e., for each sheet) is set not less than 8 beacons supports of 80 x 30 mm.The docking places two sheets of applied reference beacons in the form of strips 80 mm wide.
sheets cut out of room size, cut along the markings using a saw, hacksaw or elektrodiskovoy saw.If the angle is to stick a whole sheet, then on the one hand it makes the slot so that the other side remained intact, while bending the sheet at an angle of 90 ° will husk.You can start gluing sheets from the corner, then the husk is formed by edges of two sheets.
The prepared mastic (recipes are given in Table. 2) is applied to the surface of all the lighthouses in the joints impose a continuous strip, sheet puts a layer of mastic (not leading 10-15 mm to the floor) and thoroughly was laminated, striking the rule as longuntil the sheet is not "sit" on all beacons, and its surface is not absolutely flat.Surpluses of mastic remove a shovel, put mastic under the next sheet and paste it in the same way.
mastics or prepared on site immediately before gluing sheets of drywall, or purchased ready-to-use.
Table 2. Mastics for gluing sheets of drywall
|||||||||||||||| composition |||||||||||||| Gipsokleevaya mastic |||||||||||| Gipsoopilochnaya mastic
Gypsum \\\\\\\\\ || 50 kg /////////////////////////// 40 kg
adhesives - galerta |||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1 kg ||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 50 g
Sawdust |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 10 kg
Water ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 32-35 liters ||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 30L
adhesive is dissolved in water, left for 2-3 hours to swell the resulting solution was added to the adhesive plaster, sawdust, allmixed thoroughly until smooth.Gipsokleevaya mastic grasped 50 minutes gipsoopilochnaya - 30 minutes.For fixing 1 m2 of plasterboard requires 2.5 kg of dry adhesive and 4 kg of gypsum.
seams between sheets shpatljujut gipsokleevoy mastic sticking between two layers of filler strip of gauze or a bandage.To between the sheets with time not formed cracks, seams doubled plastic, wood or aluminum trim.Seams can embroider and that is done in the form of grooves.Jammed joints necessarily sanded flush.