Not every type of wood is suitable for wooden architecture."Traditionally, the most common material for the construction of wooden houses in Russia, and in the rest of the world were conifers - pine, fir, larch, - says Maria Litinetskaya, CEO of Blackwood, specializing in the sale and lease of elite suburban nedvizhimosti.- Itdue to the fact that they grow very slowly (during the summer season), and correspondingly, have the highest density and therefore high insulation is important in the Nordic climate conditions. "
most marketable material for wooden houses in Russia are pine and spruce.According to Valery Mishchenko, Director of Business Development Rodex Group (one of the market leaders near Moscow dacha const
less resistant to humidity, lighter and softer pine.It is able to maintain the natural color for a long time, but is more difficult to process due to the larger number of knots.In dry spruce almost as pine.It is sometimes used for interior design and manufacturing floors.However, because of its loose structure Spruce is more susceptible to decay.And it can not be considered an elite building material.
"spruce and pine in their characteristics fundamentally different, and the difference is not in favor of spruce, - says Alexander Lvov, director of the Moscow representation of the largest Finnish builder of wooden houses Honka.- Spruce much cheaper, and some unscrupulous builders sometimes give her sometimes pine for. The difference is noticeable only experienced. "
Typical disadvantages pine - is a tendency to blue in the face and rotting.Moreover, the fir and pine tend to flow - to allocate resin.However, modern methods of treatment are able to virtually nullify the problems.Nevertheless, many wealthy people do not want to build a house made of pine, and opt for the more expensive cedar and larch, which have a better performance and a more aesthetic appearance.
Larch - a unique tree, which is sometimes called eternal.She lives about 600 years and reaches a height of 45 meters. "The main advantages of larch - is that it does not rot, does not turn blue, he is not afraid of moisture and does not give off resin, - says Alexander Ivashkin, CEO of" Siberian wooden houses ".- Notaccident at home in Venice stand on stilts made of larch. By the way, this breed was used in the construction of cycle track in Krylatskoye. Another plus larch - a very fine texture. It is also said that larch has healing properties: the people who live in a house made of larch, do not get sick"."Few people know that four or five different types of larch occupy 40% of Russian forests - says Nadezhda Grebennikova.- unique resistance to decay of this breed makes it possible to use it in the construction without any further processing, and the houses of larch have a lifespan of two tothree times greater than the house from other types of wood. "
Cedar less common as a building material, although it cost almost the same as larch.Director of the company "Vladimir Stroyles" Vladimir Fedyanin assures that both these breeds have high antibacterial properties, which has a beneficial effect on human health.But more than cedar essential oils of cedar house is a natural ionizer and air conditioning.
now a growing demand for cedar homes in the style of so-called a la russ - from raw wood surface is preserved even knots.This gives the house a natural flavor.And, for example, Canadian cedar, according to Hope Grebennikova, has a number of amazing features, including low thermal conductivity.Resins cedar have healing properties.The thickness of the walls of the house may be only 100 mm.This is an elite construction materials, the cost of the house red cedar "turnkey" - 00 sq.m ".
Ivashkin Alexander notes that the Russian larch from Siberia to actively sell abroad. For example, it is popular in Germany. Larch attracts Europeans of their environmental performance. Due to the special composition of the resin over the years it is gaining densityso naturally protected from moisture and does not require special surface treatments. It is often used for decoration of terraces, swimming pools, piers and boats. According Ivashkina in the Alps made from larch shingles (wooden roofing material in the form of cuneiform tablets). The owners of these houses have taxbenefits as an environmentally friendly material.
"I hope that no one thought to carry construction larch from abroad - ironically Alexander Lvovskiy.- But the so-called red cedar really comes from America or Canada." According to head of the suburbanReal estate company IntermarkSavills Nina Reznichenko, this cedar - and expensive breed with relatively short-lived, "the House of cedar exclusive.But cedar, which by its parameters (height, width) suitable for use in construction, much more susceptible to infection by pine bark beetle.Cedar, unlike larch, very soft wood ".
harvested Larch Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk regions. Krasnoyarsk Larch has a reddish hue, and Irkutsk - yellowish. But in general, this breed of yellowish sand - unlikefrom a white pine. Ivashkin Alexander says that it is good for Siberian larch construction, and in the middle latitudes, it is the same density as the pine. With this not quite agree Vladimir Fedyanin ("Vladimir Stroyles"). He says that from larchCentral Russia is no worse, and do not use it because it is in this region is listed in the Red Book. For example, this breed is in the Vladimir region, but she was very little. And if someone finds out that such a timber used in the constructionAt home, the builder will have serious problems.
Incidentally, last restrictions were even stricter. Larch from the time of Peter was used to build ships, so until 1858 it was forbidden to use in housing construction.However, it was used for such iconic buildings as the cathedrals of the Moscow Kremlin, St. Basil's Cathedral, the Winter Palace.I must say that the larch as cedar, is not without drawbacks.Hardness - it is certainly a plus, but there is another side to the coin: this breed is more difficult to process - in particular, it is easy to split.Industrial breed is not developed.The company "Vladimir Stroyles" called another drawback: a very long time to dry larch - seven or eight years (compared with pine and cedar dry three or four years).
build a house made of larch today is not a problem, you just have to find a company with ties to Siberia.However, according to Alexander Ivashkina buy in the Moscow region larch quality - it's a problem, "Those companies that have production here usually depend on suppliers in Siberia. This has a negative effect on the price and quality. Our company itself is the procurement and processing of this breeddirectly in Siberia. The tree should have a natural moisture. The treated wood should not be a long time to dry, the process has to go home after the assembly, otherwise the tree will "lead", warp. Therefore kits are made to order. Delivery of the finished kit takes ten days. "However, there are different options.The company "Vladimir Stroyles" also have their billet in Krasnoyarsk and Arkhangelsk regions, however, being taken to Moscow larch bark and treated her here, thinking that would be difficult to save the presentation.
The thing resin
addition of pine, fir, larch and cedar for the construction of houses sometimes use fir, but it is exotic.Non-coniferous breed never honored.Aspen is considered a dead tree, birch - cold.Oak, despite its strength, heavy and gloomy."Oak is easy to crack, but well bent. It can be used for the first crown of the wooden house," - says Maria Litinetskaya.But to create the basic design elements of oak is not suitable."Walling, ie walls made of oak - this is nonsense. Oak is good for sex furniture," - Alexander Lvov.
But the interior decoration can be made from spruce, oak and other species."Bog teak, stained oak are often used as decorative elements: floors, balusters, ceiling beams, - says Nina Reznichenko (IntermarkSavills) .- This creates a certain atmosphere. Oak is often used for screens lattices heaters. Carved oak - this is a very expensive andfashionable. "But experts say the company "North-West" believe that the pine at various processing it could visually simulate different breed.
You can even create a Victorian interior, transmitting a special comfort with a European flavor (the abundance of dark wood finish).However, this style did not fit in with the wooden log house.
combination of different breeds in the "form factor" and the interior decoration of the house - a thing is possible, but often unnecessary.Much depends on the technology.For example, the walls in the homes of laminated veneer lumber does not finish made.Using several breeds in the building too rare."It was an experiment, when one Siberian company tried to build houses at once from three glued wood, - says Nina Reznichenko.- outer layer of pine, the middle of larch and the inner side - cedar. But the flow of this technology has not been delivered."
social base still ripen
When we say "chalet", can mean very different technologies.It is clear that in the house of sandwich panels does not matter, from which the frame is made - it is still not in sight.To the maximum extent to evaluate the merits of larch or cedar log home can be.However, these houses are built infrequently in the elite segment of the market, although it is at the elite customers have money for such experiments."The durability, beautiful texture, a pleasant smell - these factors make cedar and larch suitable materials for use in the construction of luxury homes" - said the expert analytical department of the company "North-West" Maria Razorenova.
But there is no consensus.For example, in the company IntermarkSavills, speaking about customers who want to build a house is not made of pine, said: "We are working in an elite segment of the suburban real estate and almost never faced with such customers' requests or suggestions of developers."In the villages of economy and business class, as noted in the Department of suburban real estate corporation "Inkom-real estate", as there is no demand for such an unusual holiday.Glued laminated timber itself is considered an excellent material, and customers who have enough money for this stuff, are not interested in, from what breed it is made.
Maria Litinetskaya (Blackwood) considers that the choice of tree species is less dependent on the class of real estate than the prevailing technology of its processing and construction."The most expensive is a laminated veneer lumber, and usually because of a build homes in the exclusive village" - she said, adding that Russia is generally very small elite projects that are built of wood.However, Valery Mishchenko (Rodex Group) believes that if we build a wooden "ranch" in size from 500 to 1,000 square meters.m in the area of several hectares - and such projects are available on the market, - the use of better materials would be very appropriate.
When asked to recall the most interesting projects of larch and cedar responded to the company IntermarkSavills."Two years ago we were selling unique home on the ruble - said Nina Reznichenko.- It was built of larch round wood. It was a piece design object. The logs were of different diameters, hewn by hand. Even this place was worth 2 million."The company "North-West" was called "British House" in the cottage "Nikolskaya Sloboda."
When decorating the facade of this house, designed by the British architectural bureau McAdams Architects, it was used larch.
Ivashkin Alexander ("Siberian wooden houses") says: "In the luxury segment have now become much build of wood. Three or four years ago, people were ordered only bathhouse larch - although there is a bath and 200-300 sq. M, and nowLarch bought the house on 1000 sq. m, and it is not uncommon. I do not argue, brick houses in the "elite" more, but the share of wooden construction is growing every year. People think about the environment and health. stone houses all missing in the city ".
cost of building a house made of pine, "turnkey" - from 00 per square meter.m, larch or cedar - from 00-2000 for the quarter.m. But this is the basic version, and then everything depends on the imagination and the client's budget.The company IntermarkSavills claim that "high-end market value of wood construction is largely dependent on the architectural solution of the object than on the kind of wood."More expensive breed - is not only an increase in cost, but also an excuse for taking a new price threshold in determining the value of the final product.Undoubtedly, part of the buyers of cottages there is a desire to stand out from the crowd.However, do not be all easy, because it is "not like everyone" immediately begin to replicate.
larch and cedar are in vogue.But what is more - the desire of customers or the commercial interests of developers?These rocks, as such, one and a half times more expensive than pine.Wall set is three times more expensive.The carriage is also possible to take a percentage.Of course, this is a normal business: building profitable expensive material, but it is difficult, and for buyers - better, but more expensive.
Experts believe that the pine tree will always be a favorite of wooden housing in Central Russia, including those in the upper echelons of the market.Neither the Finnish nor our largest construction firms with other breeds do not plan to work.Even the CEO of one of the companies actively building the house from the Siberian larch, on condition of anonymity admitted: "To be honest, better pine."When asked why, many, including their company so actively and literary extol the virtues of larch and cedar, he replied: "They are more expensive, so they are more profitable to sell."
So, perhaps, the growing popularity of these rocks - a myth?No, the experts assured, it's true.In the emerging markets do not demand creates supply, and vice versa.People are tired of the ordinary.At the suburban real estate market they want something special, festive and romantic.At least, about a man who built a house of cedar, nobody can say that he built a village in order to save the house - guests will dutifully ionized and inhale the essential oils.As for the larch, it is possible to examine the texture and clean the chakras.It is a pity that we do not know whether our descendants will be called in a couple of centuries, the current home "monuments of wooden architecture."
alternative to pine as a building material can be ... pine.But not the usual, and standing dead, that is antiquated and withered on the vine.Under the influence of the scorching summer sun, autumn rains, the cold of winter and spring floods it acquires the hardness of stone and staunchly resists the harmful effects of the environment.Unlike conventional log or laminated veneer lumber, she did not shrink.
This pine in Finland called kelo.In northern Finland, Lapland, produce wood house from kelo.
Every tree that would later become part of the house-kelo, over a long period under the supervision of a specialist.At the first sign of drying up the tree control is established: it must be protected from bugs, excessive humidity and downs.