exterior walls - building envelope is designed to protect the premises from the external environment and perceive certain load, depending on the adopted structural system of the building.But the exterior walls - is not only structural elements, because their outer side, in turn, is the facade of the building.And it is the decoration of facades, the vertical and horizontal division, the proportions of individual elements, etc.define the architectural style of the building.
But at the same time it should be noted that the facade does not exist independently of the internal layout of the building, its purpose, materials and structures of exterior walls, and is a reflection of what is confirmed in the best examples of global architecture.The facade is in the most adverse conditions of climate impacts.As walling exterior walls are exposed to a number of factors that are closely associated with the processes taking place both outside the building and inside it.
These factors, in particular, include:
-vodyanoy vapor contained in the internal air of the building;
is the chemical aggressive substances in the air.
facade without additional finishing
If the facade is not plastered, not faced with additional decorative stone, not decorated by various panels - it means the material from which it is made, ie brick, stone, concrete, wood, serves simultaneouslyand building and finishing materials.However, this does not mean that these materials do not require protection.To protect these walls from the external environment, it is necessary to handle them with special impregnation, glazes, lacquers and paints, that is water-repellent compositions.
most important requirement of all these formulations is that they need to reliably protect the wall from atmospheric moisture and at the same time ensure the free evaporation of it from the wall, that is, water vapor permeability.These protective compositions may be completely invisible, and having different colors and shades.The main thing - remember that the material used must be fully consistent with the type of wall to which it is applied, as required protective structures fully compatible with the base.This is required by the rules of efficiency that ultimately "work on the result.»
facades plastered and painted
emergence of new facade materials made of metal, plastic, glass, composite materials and others. Could not displace these provenmethods of finishing such as painting and plaster.This is one of the most economical ways facade.Of course, the use of paints and plasters due not only to economic needs, but also better able to "play" with color and texture that provide architects like coating.For facades use special facade paints, decorative plaster and facing materials.But no matter what materials were used for the facade, one of the most important things is the proper preparation of the ground.
facades Facing a variety of materials on the frame
It is popular now, ventilated façade systems.Suspended facade is a structure consisting of materials lining (slabs or sheet material) and the substructure which, in turn, secured to the wall so that between the protective and decorative coating and the wall remained air gap.For additional insulation between the outer structural wall and lining can be installed insulating layer - in this case, the ventilation gap is left between the cladding and insulation.
We will not stop now all systems of ventilated facades, consider a popular cottage construction vinyl siding.The word "siding" is borrowed.In the English language, more in American English, the word "siding" determines the technology facade sewing some hanging materials.The fact is that the traditional American building technologies involve zashivnoy skeleton construction method.With this method, first erected supporting frame, which is then sheathed with some facade materials.The most common tree, to be exact - boards.Boards with the sewn overlapped, "herringbone".
Thus, due to the lack of wind seam requires no additional windscreen and protection from rain.It is this technology, i.e.facade cladding process, and is called "siding", and the material used for this is called, of course, the traditional wood siding.Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has found wide application in all areas of human existence.Great resistance, processability, chemical resistance has led to the widespread of the material, including and construction.Window and door profiles, furniture, bathroom fixtures, all kinds of films and coatings, and finally panels for cladding facades, called "vinil siding" (vinyl siding).
vinyl siding appeared in the late sixties - early seventies of the twentieth century.From that moment is counting stories vinyl siding - today one of the most popular building materials.Vinyl siding is molded of PVC panel thickness of about one millimeter, imitating the wooden trim overlap.The texture of the surface often imitates wood.The dye is introduced into the mass of material before molding.Form panels is a little different from different manufacturers and in different series from the same manufacturer.The length of the panels often about 300-400 cm, width - from 20 to 25 cm.
natural and artificial stone
palette of coating materials, available now at the disposal of architects - is enormous, and it is constantly updated with new developments.This makes it possible embodiment in the life of all, the most daring ideas.Materials used for cladding, should first of all have the necessary frost resistance, moisture resistance, durability and maintainability.Additional requirements must be considered by designers in every case.
extremely important to ensure durable "work" facing natural stone is a competent design:
-proper selection of natural stone for a particular element of design and construction;
-Select the type of attachment to the structure;
be a proper pair of surfaces and the plates together (gaps, sealing, and thermal expansion joints);
-Application durable fixing device holding the mortar compositions, mastics;
-Accounting collaboration layer facing the supporting structure through the correct application of securing devices for monolithic lining (in solution, mastics, adhesives) and for lining arranged on the surface refers to the supporting structure (at the device of ventilated facades).
dwell on the materials have been widely used: natural stone, ceramic and polymer-cement products.
Stone - a material that combines beauty and eternity.Modern methods of processing stone and facing mounting technology products allow wider use of natural stone.Facing stone plays an important role in the architectural expression of the building.Due to the uniqueness of colors and textures of the stone makes unique any building, even built from standard components.Selection of types of stone for cladding and decorative works, its surface texture and size of facing products is determined primarily by architectural problems.The color and texture of various types of stone influence the perception of architectural structures.Buildings of the dark gabbro, granite, diorite and other similar breeds look the most monumental, sometimes even gloomy and inaccessible compared to structures of light limestone, marble and travertine.Bright polished marble, translucent in the corners and fine detail can contribute to the impression of lightness and airiness even, transparent structures, walls on a sunny day literally dissolve against the sky.Fine combination of rocks of different colors gives the building elegance and conviviality.
Granite. Deep rock composed of quartz (20-40%), ortoglaza (40-70%) and mica (5-20%).The color is determined by the color of granite and ortoglaza is gray, blue-gray, dark red.The structure of granite - granular crystal.The granite building structures are frost resistant and durable due to the low porosity and small water absorption and good resistance to corrosion.Granites allow to make products large - up to 3 m.
Marble. Marbles consist of calcite crystals, sometimes mixed with grains of dolomite.The crystals are often visible to the naked eye and are firmly connected to one another.Marble formed from limestone and dolomite under the influence of high temperature or under the influence of the enormous pressure caused by recrystallization of limestone.Marble is white, gray, pink, yellow, red, black, and others. Lets get products of any surface texture, with dimensions of up to 2 m. The disadvantages are susceptibility to corrosion, while the colored marbles - and low frost.
Limestone. limestones are composed mainly of calcium.The clay content in the limestone must not exceed 6%.The increase in clay content reduces the strength and hardiness of limestone.Depending on the bulk density and strength of limestone are separated into dense and porous.Advantages of soft limestone - uniformity in color tone and structure, low cost.Disadvantages - low physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, frost resistance, water absorption), susceptibility to corrosion, limited in the choice of colors, size restrictions of products (up to 400 mm).
Travertine. porous, honeycomb rock formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from the hot and cold sources.Color - light yellow.Advantages - Decorative, a variety of color tones, beautiful texture, frost, low cost.Disadvantages - exposure to pollution.
Diorite. consists of feldspars (plagioclase), hornblende, and rare - augite and biotite.Color - gray or dark green.Diorite has high toughness, less fragile than granite, well polished.
Gabbro. consists of plagioclase (primary rock), augite and olivine.The structure of the gabbro - coarse.Color - dark gray or black.
brick and natural stone - it's old, traditional materials used for the construction of buildings.The facades of these materials have earned the love of both designers and customers thanks to expressive, rich in plastics and a variety of colors.But now for brick or stone facade it is not necessary to use a solid brick or stone - it is not always appropriate for economic and structural reasons.To simulate a facade of brick or natural stone can be used a variety of facing materials - panels of different materials, and tiles.
wall tiles can be applied to any wall surface (of the sand-lime brick, concrete, sandstone, etc.), and even for thermal insulation systems "wet type", for both new construction and for restoration.For the restoration of old buildings even produced a special tile that mimics the old handmade brick (with a special surface structure characteristic of the old bricks).Due to small thickness of facing products may also be used in the interior.Facing tiles are available with different texture, "a natural brick", "under the natural raw or polished stone", "a wild stone".The colors of the tiles are similar to natural materials.Available in dozens of varieties of tiles - from pearly white to almost black.
addition to ordinary tiles are also available, and angular elements that make possible complete imitation masonry.In practice, the angular elements are often used for decoration of arches and windows.Tiles and also designed in a trapezoid shape.Tiling special skills are required.Mounting on the mortar or mastic.Before facing the base needs preparation.It should be dry, firm, smooth and clean.Unacceptable fat contamination.Porous substrates should be pre-treated with primer.Facing tiles are manufactured from different materials.On the market are ceramic, and polymer-clinker tiles.
Application of ceramic tiles allows you to fully simulate a brick wall, becausetiles like "cut off" from the whole brick and have the same texture and color as that of a real brick.Due to the small thickness of the tiles mount technology allows even to seal the seams - excess solution is spread with a brush in the grooves between tiles.Corner tiles are made by special technology from a piece of brick.In addition to ceramic tiles, widespread and clinker wall tiles.The clinker made from clay by calcination to its high temperature sintering.Ceramic tiles have a much higher strength and a very low water (below 2%), which ensures high durability.Due to the low moisture absorption water does not penetrate the structure of the material, and the rain simply washes off all dirt from the tiles.Clay tile is perfect for facing facades - both in their technical characteristics, and thanks to the wide surface texture and rich colors.
Polymer facing tile "Brick" looks very similar to ceramic.But it is thinner and lighter.It should also be noted that the imitation of the natural brick is not limited to its original properties.Thanks to a specially developed manufacturing technology tile can give almost any color and texture, includingand "under a rock."The main raw material for the production of tiles are natural components: sand, white cement and natural additives (particles of shells, quartz, etc.).To make the products of heat resistance, cold hardiness and longevity mixture before punching modified polymer additives.
According to the materials, "Who will build the house?"