materials used for the fabrication of frameworks
shelters for the fabrication of frameworks used:
wooden slats, beams and boards of various sections and lengths;
flexible twigs of willow, willow, hazel, poplar and other trees;
black plastic (polyethylene) and the tick-stekloplas pipe diameter 15-30 mm (white polyethylene pipes are not commonly used as they are destroyed by UV);
steel materials and profiles:
pipe with an outer diameter of 10-25 mm and a wall thickness of 0.5-2 mm;
rods with a diameter of 5-12 mm;
band width 12-30 mm and a thickness of 2-5 mm;
wire, thick - with a diameter of 5-10 mm and the diameter of 0.5-2 mm thin.
sale rack and rails necessary section and the necessary length are quite rare, so gardeners often make them yourself using a circular saw or a woodworking machine.
to manufacture rails and beams used board of appropriate thickness.If the board of desired thickness and length of the farm gardener or on the basis of building materials were not available, take t
To protect the wood from rotting parts of carcasses and elements (slats, boards, racks, etc..) Before assembly is necessary to process antiseptic.This may be used in special protection purchased 10% solution of copper or iron vitriol solution "SENEG" and others. Most gardeners used as an antiseptic used motor oil.It is heated to a temperature 60-80 'C and applied with a brush, two or three times on the surface of wooden parts and elements.
more effective antiseptic solution is hot bitumen construction of any brand.His crushed and heated to boiling in a bucket on a fire or a blowtorch.Then, the bucket is removed from the heat and to reduce the melt viscosity of the solution is added waste motor oil, kerosene or diesel fuel (diesel fuel).The liquid is poured in a thin stream, stirring constantly solution.The mixture in the cold should have the consistency of liquid sour cream.The mixture was then reheated to a temperature of 60-80 ° C and the resulting solution is coated twice or three times the surface of wooden parts and elements of the structure.
bituminous antiseptic higher quality is obtained on the basis of gasoline.It deeply penetrates into the wood and dries quickly.To cook the crushed asphalt is put in a bucket with a lid, poured gasoline and cover tightly closed.On one part of the bitumen (by volume) taking two parts gasoline.The mixture was thoroughly mixed and allowed to completely dissolve the bitumen.This antiseptic used cold.
lower part of the pillars and beams, which are dug into the ground, it is advisable to cover antiseptic burn blowtorch flame or fire.
treated with antiseptic wooden construction after the assembly, double-coated light oil paint.At the same time the ends of wooden parts is recommended not to paint, so that through them the tree could breathe.
is used for frame steel parts also require mandatory painting to protect them from rust and increase service life.
order to form ridges and strengthen their edges, as well as reduce the amount of weed on them and to facilitate the care of plants, garden beds around the perimeter set up and strengthen the fence - do zabirku.Application zabirki particularly advantageous if in the garden is planned to build a shelter.
Zabirku made of wooden boards, flat or corrugated asbestos-cement sheets and strips of fiberglass or the usual slate thickness of 8-15 mm and a width of 20-30 cm.
asbestos cement sheets and sheets of slate sawing ordinary carpenter hacksaw with the teeth of medium size.
Thicker sheets cut as follows.Is planned cutting line and the line of her make cuts on two sides of the sheet pobeditovym cutter or along the line of cut drill hole diameter of 4-6 mm.Incised leaf placed precisely on the cutting line on the edge of a bench or rail, on a solid ground, and strongly pressed to the edge of the sheet.Sheet breaks exactly drawn line.Asbestos-cement sheets and sheets of slate is also advisable to paint with oil paint.
Wooden boards zabirki be treated with antiseptic and double bituminous paint with oil paint.
Specifications translucent materials
As a translucent material for shelters most often used polymer film.Less common, PVC, polypropylene, polyamide, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, polyethylene terephthalate (lavsanovaja), as well as roll and sheet GRP, etc..
polymer film has a number of positive qualities: it is cheap, has a low specific weight, it does not beat, easy to cut to piecesthe right size, it is easy to attach to the wooden frame members.
film can be welded electrosolderers, iron, blowtorch flame, candle or spirit lamp, glue together using a variety of adhesives and thread to sew.
film quite well transmit light, does not absorb moisture, frost, pretty strong, so that for a long time to resist rain, wind, hail and snow.
However, the film has some drawbacks.It is not well keeps the heat inside the building.Under the influence of UV transparency and strength of most types of film are reduced: it ages, becomes cloudy, loses elasticity, there are cracks in it and therefore it is easily torn by wind gusts.Even specially treated light-stabilized film has a limited lifespan.The film coating is typically no more than one season.
new, not used one plastic film passes about 90% of the visible solar radiation, 83% of UV and 80% IR.
Domestic industry produces a variety of characteristics translucent polymer films: non-stabilized hydrophobic;stable hydrophilic;antistatic hydrophilic;stabilized and reinforced grade 1/2 mark.
addition of polyethylene films are commercially available and are used by the following types of films: ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer;PVC;reinforced PVC;"Polisvetan", "Harvest" and others.
translucent polymer materials are constantly being improved, developed and appear in the sale of new types and species.In particular, besides conventional films produced as a perforated (punched film), which is 1 m2 done about 500 holes, each 1 cm2.Perforated film, in some cases it is advisable to apply for the processing by a shelter.The holes in the film provide access to the construction of fresh air and thus contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for growing plants.In such plants, they grow well and develop even without ventilation, for example, during the absence of owners in the area.
As a translucent material instead of traditional film can be used in roll and sheet transparent fiberglass, made on the basis of polyester resins and glass fiber reinforced.
Glass is a high ,null, durable and reliable material.However, its light transmission is less than that of the film, it has a strong diffusing capacity and transmits only about 70% of the active solar radiation by plants for photosynthesis.
best characteristics of a fiberglass sheet thickness from 1 to 5 mm and a width of up to 3 m. This material transmits up to 90% of solar radiation.Its service life is 15-20 years.For
frame shelters can be used as transparent as glass, elastic, flexible and light plates Makrolon issued foreign industry.These two-layer plate, the layers provided between the partition and the air gaps thickness of about 10 mm.Such a construction of plates increases their strength and thermal conductivity decreases.
shelters are used for frameless transparent, flexible, corrugated sheets of plastic.
Application fiberglass plates Makrolon, corrugated sheets and similar translucent materials opens up new possibilities in the construction of buildings protected ground, in particular, various frameless and frame shelters.
addition of polymer films as a translucent material for the shelters are also used by foreign and domestic non-woven covering materials: agril, AGROTEKS, bioplen, lutrasil, spunbond, and others.
Nonwoven covering materials produced different density (specific gravity): 13;17;Thirty;40-42;50-60 g / m2.Lightweight materials are white, and hard - black.White
materials - light, soft, non-transparent (opaque), a thin, flexible yet durable fabric.These materials are quite well transmit light, air and moisture, but trap heat.Plants under cover of such materials do not experience sudden changes in daytime and nighttime temperatures, and protected from direct sunlight.
White covering material, despite its opaque appearance, transmits 90% of light energy including ultraviolet rays, unlike the polyethylene film which not only transmits these rays, but cloudy and becomes brittle under their influence.
Nonwoven covering materials according to their density can be used in different ways.
most lightweight materials are used to directly cover plants (without frame), t. E. The material directly on the trail plants and these are fundamentally different from the polymer film.The beds with crops planted seedlings or cover material freely without stretching, leaving allowances on the edges of the cloth.This allowance shall take into account the height of the future plant.On the contour of beds
cloth strips pressed or sprinkle the ground.The material is light, well lets moisture, so do not get wet, and therefore does not sag and does not hurt the most tender shoots.
Covering material with a specific weight of 40-42 g / m2 is more dense and durable.It can be used as a direct cover for plants, and as a coating for frame structures.
Nonwoven covering materials is very convenient to use as a second shelter in Greenhouses in early spring and late autumn in cold weather, as well as in anticipation of frost.
When grown under non-woven covering materials of vegetable crops that require pollination by bees (most varieties of cucumber, zucchini, and others.), A day removed to allow access to insects.
Cultivation of vegetables that do not require pcheloopyleniya (tomatoes, cabbage, greens, root vegetables, etc..), The material is removed only for work on care of plants (loosening the soil, hilling, weeding), and for the harvest.
black covering material (with a specific weight of 50-60 g / m2) is used as mulch for weed control.It is spread on prepared and well-loosened soil and secured the perimeter or in the corners of the beds.In the field seeding (planting) or along the rows of slots or make holes for plants.The black color material significantly reduces the transmission of light and prevents weed growth and development.
However, due to its good moisture and air permeability of biological processes in the soil are not violated.In addition, the soil under the black material is well heated, decreases its temperature drop during the day and better plants take root, grow and develop.
good effect is obtained by simultaneous use of two types of non-woven fabric - black mulch and white coverlet.
autumn, after the harvest, the cloth covering material is removed from the beds, rinsing, dry vayut, folded and stored until spring.Thin and light covering materials are two or three seasons, and tight - within four to five years.
fastening methods translucent material cover to the chassis
lifetime of the coating film to the frame constructions of the film depends on the resistance to weathering and condition the surface of support frame members, as well as means of fastening the film.
Sharp corners and uneven frame members should be well planed and hewn with an ax, a plane, or a file.
As we have said, to extend the life of the film and its frame of wood and metal elements is recommended to paint light oil paint.
metal pipes, rods and wires to avoid their contact with the film is recommended to wrap the synthetic cord or tape bandage of any material.
means of fixing the film to the frame shelter must ensure its reliable fixation, wind resistance and no sagging in the rain.
Prefab cover cloth is usually covered with a film or a nonwoven fabric.Fixing film on the frame made in several ways.
cloth is snapped to the frame, the free edge of the film Face tie into a bundle and attach (bind) to wooden stakes driven into the ground by the front face cover.The longitudinal side edges of the cloth, press down strips, sprinkled with stones or earth.
Before fitting the film to the frame cover the longitudinal sides of the cloth nailed to wooden slats section 30 x 20 mm the appropriate length.Before it ends the film once or twice wrapped around these strips, pressed bars section 20x10 mm or strips of Micarta, fiberglass or linoleum and nailed.
This mounting method provides a simple, convenient and quick closing and opening of shelters for his airing and care for plants.
If the width of the film selected such that when the shelter closed slats do not touch the ground, they will be pulling their weight film.
If ventilation is expected to open its shelter with only one (south) side of the other (north) side of the film can be nailed through the slats section 20x10 mm to wooden planks zabirki.
film when opening the cover is wound on a rack so that the roll was a film rather than a film, and does not unwind by its own weight.If
cloth film or a nonwoven fabric has sufficient margin width, its longitudinal edges may simply be wound on a rack without nailing her nails.
Along the edges of the cloth can be fixed with special clamps, which are sometimes sold with film.These terminals attach the cord or twine, which attaches to the frame member to secure the cloth when the cover is closed.
To maintain rails attached to the longitudinal side of the film on the boards can be strengthened zabirki zigzag brackets, which laid the rails when opening the cover.
When opening cover tape wound on racks and placed on a special wire hooks provided in the upper part of the frame near the ridge member.
To facilitate operation shelters wooden slats, on which the film is wound the cloth, can be inserted into a sleeve made along the longitudinal edges, the dimensions of which depend on the inserted-section rails.To do this, the edge of the film is folded to form a sleeve The corresponding size and welded iron or electrosolderers a rare sewn seam by hand or on a sewing machine.To increase the strength of the seam under enclose a narrow strip of fabric or braid.For this purpose it is convenient to use a folded in half along the length of the narrow medical bandage.
One method of fixing a film made in the form of a sleeve side surface of the cover, is as follows.Cut a piece of film whose length is slightly longer than the shelter.