Wood

By Admin | Building Materials
26 May 2016
In addition, it is one of the most durable, lightweight materials, long lasting warmth and a pleasant scent.From the tree, you can do anything from a simple wooden spoon until the plane.While both require effort, diligence and patience.

In order to get to work with wood, it is necessary to stock exposure.It does not matter if something will not turn out right the first time, everything comes with experience.A good eye and a steady hand will be those assistants who do not allow to make a mistake in cutting, sawing, drilling, chipping and vytachivanii wood.



Types cuts a tree trunk and their texture:

and - components of the cross-cut the stem: 1 - bast layer of the bark;2 - cambium;3 - sapwood;4 - the core;5 - core;6 - medullary rays;

b - the main trunk sections: 1 end section;2 - tangential section;3 - radial section;of - the texture of pine wood in three sections: 1 - in the cross;2 - at a radial;3 - in the tangential



Wood is not a whimsical building materials, but some mistakes, it does not
forgive.It is impossible to lengthen a few centimeters, or roughly sawn planks align spoiled surface without prejudice to future product.It is not clay and clay, but the plasticity they also did not yield timber.Crude or specially soaked wood perfectly takes the form that it should be given.

At work, you can either distort or stress textured wood pattern.In the second case made the product will benefit and will look great no cover layer of paint.A game tones help strengthen various wood lacquers which are applied to the surface of two or three thin coats.

To maximize future masterpiece emphasized textured wood pattern and did not contradict him, first of all, you need to carefully consider the bar.

There is no bar of wood, which had not traced the growth direction of the fibers.The most complete picture of what happens in the selected bar, there may be only if sawed a bar in three ways: by angle 45 °, along the grain and across them.

slice at an angle of 45 ° is called the tangential and gives textured pattern in the form of tapered lines.



test the strength of wood: and - compression and collapse along the fibers;b - bending across the grain;in - compression and collapse across the grain;g - on local bearing across the grain;d - shearing along the fibers;e - for chipping across the grain


slice along the radial fibers gives slice showing parallel lines of fibers.

slice extending across the grain, in fact gives the textured pattern of annual lines.Such a cut will be so called - cross.

If properly positioned at the bar enjoy drawing, the appearance of a future product only benefit from this.In addition, the complexity and beauty of the future pattern is directly dependent on the complexity of the wood grain.

Wood species

depending, on what you want to do, use some type of wood.First you need to determine if you have selected a bar to the coniferous or hardwood.In conifers dominated sharp, resinous smell.In addition, the macrostructure of wood better highlighted than hardwood.

conifer species are pine, spruce, fir, cedar.

Pine is often used as a building material.Stained wood is like reddish yellow and pale yellow.It is worth noting that this does not affect the working properties of wood.Wood pine rugged, lightweight, and does not cause any difficulties in processing.In addition, due to the high content of resin it is very resistant to rot, and atmospheric effects.

soft pine structure allows you to easily absorb different colors.This also applies to the lacquer coating.When dry pine wood is practically not deformed.

Spruce is the second largest and the use of sea timber.Compared to pine-fir is largely inferior to her.First of all, this is due to a large number of knots on the surface of the timber.Yes, and it is much more difficult to process than the pine.Pitches in eating a little less, which affects the deterioration of resistance to atmospheric agents.

Fir easy to process and practically does not take chemicals.Its wood is due to the low resin content quickly rots when exposed to open air.

cedar or, as it is called, Siberian pine, in its construction quality is not inferior eating, and sometimes even superior.Its wood is very easy to handle, but it is not very resistant to decay.

Hardwood divided into deciduous hardwood and soft.Wood data rocks almost no smell, and the smell only appears when fresh cut and processing.Among the hardwoods most commonly used are oak, birch, ash, and from softwood - aspen and alder.

Oak is often used to manufacture beautiful, durable furniture.In addition, the solid wood allows to decorate parts of the relief carvings.High strength and hardness contributes oak manufacturing small, but at the same time strong fasteners.Due to the high content of tannins oak is the most resistant to rot from all the hardwood.

Birch is used much less often than ash.This is due to low resistance to decay and susceptibility to deformation.But the wood is well treated, provides an opportunity to do a fine relief carving.Furthermore, Birch well impregnated chemicals.

Ash is most often used in the manufacture of furniture, veneer and flooring.Such widespread use of ash due to the quality of its wood: solid, viscous, durable, resistant to decay, with a beautiful textured pattern on drying little warp and bend well at the Steaming.

wood structure

Having a cross-section can more clearly see the structure of the wood.Each bar has planed tree bark;Bark - a skin of the tree, which is not used in the work, and it definitely should be removed.Under the bark of the tree is a zone of growth (cambium), which is almost indistinguishable to the naked eye.

the fresh saw cut with a growing tree cambium layer is presented very well.After the bark is removed, a thin layer will damp cloth greenish color - is the cambium.Behind him is the wood with growth rings, also known as sap.In the center of each tree has a core which color can merge with sapwood, or have a darker color.

Depending on the share of the sap wood, where the kernel does not have a clearly defined structure, and cells are as tight as willows sapwood and sound, where, respectively, the kernel is well distinguishable.Sometimes the wood is called sapwood bezyadrovymi.

to the sound wood are all conifers (pine, cedar, spruce, yew, larch) and some hardwood (oak, ash, poplar) species.

Most hardwoods make up a number of sapwood, or bezyadrovyh birch, hornbeam, alder, maple.



main part of the trunk and its main sections: 1 - bark;2 - sapwood;3 - the core;4 - core;sections: I - Allen;II - radial;W - tangential




wood: a - sapwood;b - Sound


addition microstructure of wood, that is, the density of the wood cells to a composition and the use of a bar in the wood affects the macrostructure represented growth rings and medullary vessels.

By macrostructure also include the presence of different knots, nodules and undeveloped shoots (buds), who reject the annual rings and form a variety of irregular grain.

Wood, where most clearly distinguishable growth rings, horizontal and vertical vessels, is the most interesting for processing.

wood shrinkage

Different wood defects can be avoided, somehow placing on the workpiece drawing.But in any case, the work should be taken only dried wood, otherwise it is likely that after a long and hard work of all the efforts will be wasted, in other words, the product split and warp.Therefore, before you start to work, you need a good dry preform.But do not just with raw wood sawing off pieces, which are then not needed.Wood from this is still faster dry.At the same time, you can simply ruin the bar, because when drying the fibers are compressed in different directions in different ways.

smallest resize bar to happen towards the growth of the fibers, that is, in radial section, "Most bar shrinks in tangential direction.

All timbers in their ability to decrease exchanges during drying can be divided into two categories: highly shrinks and shrinks slightly.The first category includes "Kie rock, oak, linden, elm, alder, beech, maple and many others. Wood is the second category are: willow, aspen, poplar, pine. Not resize when only shrinkage spruce larch.

Wood dryingrequires a lot of patience. You can not ever put raw wood to a strong heat source. First of all, bringing home the board should hold them a few days on the glazed loggias and then enter the room.

If not glazed balcony, the board recommended to put in a closet ora corridor, where the temperature is slightly ilk than in the living room and especially in the kitchen. It is important that for several days standing out t boards draft. 'Yes, and also on the balcony to avoid contact with the wood to direct sunlight, so as not to happen that one part of the workpiece has dried up, and the other not.

little dried up boards to lubricate the ends garden pitch or PVA glue. Blanks made of valuable wood, you mustlubricate not only ends but also from the sides, so that when dry are not cracks. The same rules should adhere to and when drying fruit trees. A layer of PVA can replace ordinary paper, which is glued to the sides of the bar starch paste.

thus preparedway bars and boards placed near radiators, fireplace or heater. Boards need to constantly flip and ensure that the temperature in the room was the same ,null, no significant changes. But the draft also should be avoided, otherwise increase the likelihood of cracking.

Depending on what the size of the selected workpieces, drying time can be varied.Thick and long boards, of course, much longer to dry than thin and short.

If drying boards takes place not in the room and outdoors, be sure to do a canopy that will protect wood from direct sunlight and precipitation.The earth under the boards must be carefully aligned so that they are not twisted during storage and drying.On the ground layer of tar paper trail, and then put a few small bars of the same at a distance of 60-70 cm, so that air can freely penetrate under the board.When drying with a large number of boards needed to shift their bars every two boards.

wood defects

When working with wood should pay attention not only to the arrangement of the fibers.First of all, you want to carefully examine all sides of the selected block.Wood work should be strong and healthy: uniform in color, without the impurities of unusual colors, with no signs of defeat of wood worms, grinders, and no traces of decay began.If the bar has at least one of these flaws, it should not be used for work, as all the work may be in vain, and the product will be unattractive and very small lifetime.

should not be used for wood, fungus affected.It can be well seen even with the naked eye to change the color of the wood and the splitting of the fibers in the lesion.The color of the affected wood fungus can vary from creamy brown to bluish and greenish.The rest of the wood retains the familiar color.

greenish patina that appears in some parts of the wood suggests that the wood start to rot.



Flaws structure of wood: a - roe;b - & gt; - curly gain;to - curl;g - Kren;d - inner sapwood;e • - Dual core;Well - stepson;Z - sprout;and - zasmolok


mold affects only the timber from the outside, so if you promptly smooth out the surface with a knife or a plane, the board or the bar you can still save, and then, to dry;use in work.

color decay is not as harmless as it sound.It strikes the wood from the inside, destroying its structure, and makes it impossible to use of the material in the work.

Wood can be perfectly healthy, but not 'fit for work.Flaws are different: some of them;can completely eliminate the use of wood, others only limited possibilities for treatment.

The most common defect is the presence of "knots that are of two types. One of them is firmly fused with the timber and removed from the array only when you remove the whole section.

Others, on the contrary, separated very easily. It is here that it is likely that thedrying of the finished product may fall splinter and damage the product.

Lead hole is possible by means of a wedge-shaped cork which is driven instead of a knot. In addition, during long storage timber as a building material in the first place was blackened twigs. The only exceptions are some conifers.

The category of wood defects can be attributed to the presence of zasmolok conifers and hardwoods in vodosloev - so called pockets of sap in solid wood. When trimming is necessary to pump out of this place the resin and process it with a special solution. But it is better to place the item on thebar so that a pocket located inside the part or outside it.Among

wood defects that need to be taken into account in the work place is a great sin, as the presence of cracks.They are formed in the solid wood during the growth of a tree trunk.Cracks are different.

Frost cracks can split the entire trunk into two parts.Sami cracks extend from the outer edge inwards and formed only in the winter when severe frosts.

Resignation cracks occur within the barrel, thus there is the gap between the annual growth rings.The reason for the formation of cracks - a lot of stress inside the barrel in the period of intensive maturation.

Metikovye crack as freezing, the barrel may be divided into two parts.The difference between them is that the frost go from the outer edge to the center and metikovye - from the bottom to the top of the barrel.

Cracks in the shrinkage may also be formed in the timber with no visible defects.Such cracks are the center of the stem to the outside, across the growth rings.

vices also include the provision of wood fibers.Such a defect can be both natural and mechanical.In any case, the thin, narrow bars of a timber highly warp.

have softwood most common defect such as a bank.It is a natural defect that occurs V Yeri compactness trunk during the growth period.Wood fibers in this section are located close to each other, which significantly increases the impregnation of wood preservatives and chemical dyes.But this wood is very durable and resistant to weathering, so that it can be adapted to trim the front door at the cottage or apartment.The presence of growth in the wood itself and unpleasant phenomenon can create great difficulties after shrinkage.'This defect occurs when the cut tree trunk during the growth.The resulting wound heals slowly, but the annual rings are already starting to grow a little differently.

Types lumber

most common in stores and lesobazah sold already dried wood, and raw is quite rare.