clear is that it did not arise as we know it, as well as most construction materials, has come a long way of development.The earliest concrete found by archaeologists, can be traced to 5600 BCHe was found on the banks of the Danube, in the village Lapinski Vir (Yugoslavia), in one of the huts of an ancient settlement of the Stone Age, where it was made from the floor 25 cm thick. The concrete floor was prepared for it on gravel and reddish local lime.
concrete history is inextricably linked with the history of cement.The oldest binders used man is clay and fat land, which after mixing with water and drying gained some strength.As the complexity of building and increased requirements for the binder.More than 3 thousand. BCEgypt, India and China began to produce artificial binders, such as gypsum, and later - lime.From it built the Egyptian Gallery of the labyrinth (3600 years BC. E.), Part of the Great Wall of China (III in. BC. E.), A number of facilities on the territory of India, an
expanded clay blocks
refers to a group of lightweight concrete on the basis of porous aggregates.It got its name from the "concrete block".That it is the most widely used as a filler.Clay gravel up to 80% of total modern production of artificial porous aggregates.If the fuel filler used slag, called the concrete cinder block, and made of these blocks - breeze blocks.Wall lightweight aggregate blocks used in the construction of exterior walls and interior partitions.They are used to fill the frame with the monolithic concrete housing construction, the construction of farm buildings, garages and houses for individual customers.
lightweight aggregate blocks have the following advantages over ceramic and silicate brick.According to its environmental properties are expanded clay blocks alongside the ceramic brick.One of the advantages of the material are its thermal insulation properties, making it preferable for use in both warm and cold climates.Structures of lightweight aggregate concrete blocks are eternal and do not require maintenance.The material does not rot, is not illuminated, unlike wood and does not rust as opposed to metal.
blocks of heavy concrete
manufacture of heavy concrete foundation blocks.For them, the characteristic is not only the value of the average density and high strength, frost resistance and permeability.Average density is in the range 1800-2500 kg / m3 and compressive strength - from 5 to 80 MPa.Design brand for the compressive strength of the M50 to the M800.
cellular concrete blocks
Cellular concrete (There are two types: foam and aerated concrete) - a relatively new material, if the brick 3000 years, it is not more than 100 years.Aerated concrete - a porous material.It has the properties of stone and wood at the same time.As a matter of fact an artificial stone, it has a high strength, but due to the porosity of its thermal conductivity is almost as low as that of a tree.This artificial porous stone that can float in the water and meets all the regulatory requirements imposed on construction materials for strength, deformation and frost, has thermal insulation properties, which is 2-3 times higher than that of bricks.The wall of this material "breathes", creating an ideal microclimate in the premises, particularly useful in the pulmonary, cardiovascular and joint problems, but concrete has the same properties as that of hardwood, in contrast, does not burn or rot.It is most effective for today "warm" light material from which to build the cheapest housing.
porous structure aerated defines a number of its high physical and mechanical properties.The thermal conductivity of aerated concrete (though not all, and produced by advanced technology) is 0.14 W / m ° C.Therefore, pursuant to the thermo-physical specifications, the thickness of the wall built from it should be about 3.2 x 0.14 = 45 cm. This is a reasonable structural thickness.In addition, while not even require additional insulation.It is easy enough, strong enough and very warm walls.Cellular concrete is confined inside the pores, so it does not absorb moisture.Besides, it does not burn, and its properties (in contrast, for example, bricks) are not particularly limited in temperatures characteristic of household fires.The results of the testing of aerated concrete wall thickness of only one (!) Centimeter withstand direct impact of open flame for two hours.The internal structure of the material is not damaged.
Porous concrete is not only good at trapping heat, but also perfectly protection against noise.The wall thickness of 15 cm reduces the noise by more than 50 dB.Cellular concrete is also a "breathing".In order not to interfere with his ability that should cover it vapor-permeable plaster and paint.This feature of cellular concrete it is necessary to take into account during construction.If you have decided to build it out of it, get a contractor who has already had a positive experience in the construction of houses made of this material.Cellular concrete is much easier usual, he did not even sink in water.Therefore, the walls of it gets enough light, they do not require large and heavy foundations.But the walls are not always permit laying of concrete slabs, being able to withstand only wood.
Cellular concrete is well processed by simple tools: sawn, cut, drilled.Ease of processing allows to make structures of different configurations (including arched) cut therein channels and holes for wiring, sockets and various communications.Currently, under the name of aerated concrete produced many varieties lightweight concrete.They differ in the composition of fillers, but the principle of production and structure them alone: they are all reminiscent of porous chocolate.However, they have different quality - like the different varieties of chocolate.
cellular concrete can be divided into two major groups: foam concrete and aerated concrete.For the construction of walls using ready-made blocks that hold cement mortar (like brickwork).One such block weighing 15 kg replaces eight bricks weighing over 35 kg.And masonry blocks is faster and easier than brick.High accuracy linear dimensions allows laying blocks are not a traditional solution, and construction adhesive.The result is a very accurate and robust construction - even without a hint of gap.That is a prefabricated house of aerated concrete is not much different from monolithic.House of aerated concrete can even leave without finishing.Designed that they can stand as such for 80 years.However, for aesthetic reasons they still advisable to cover with plaster, paint or oblitsevat brick.In the latter case it is recommended to leave an air gap between the lining and the wall to provide ventilation space between them.
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