Industry produces several of its species: acid-, cold-resistant, food, oil and petrol resistance, heat resistance.
Application sheet rubber is possible at a temperature of - 30 ° C to +50 "C.
rubber products, such as gaskets, seals, gaskets, manufactured industrially, - stored at a temperature of 0 to +25 ° C. Whenthat they should be protected from direct sunlight, petrol and various technical oils.
For more sealed tubes used seals, which are mainly used the following materials:
- Tape FUM (ftorlon 4D). It is used as a sealant for threaded connectionsas well as for packing. Resistant to acids and alkalis, capable of withstanding high temperatures;
- woven cotton stuffing HBS. Used for stuffing box;
- linen strand. It is used to seal the threaded connections;
- paronite. Used forsealing threaded spigot, flanged connections.
engine oil and glycerin will be useful for repair and maintenance work.The first is used for threading, as a coola
as insulation tubes are used:
glass wool and mineral wool.This inorganic insulation, they can not be rotting and burning.Are stored in rolls or mats.Are used for thermal insulation of external water pipes;
mats improved glass.This elastic material is lighter than conventional mineral wool because of its lack of binders.Used for insulation of pipes of small diameter;
box of advanced glass.This long fiber thermal insulator, which is placed across the fiber.It is used for thermal insulation of shallow buried or external piping.
fiberglass coated sheet of mineral wool.And having resilient stretchability in the longitudinal direction.Used for thermal insulation as well as an outer coating.Suitable for insulation expansion vessels and storage tanks.
universal penofolgirovanny insulation.It consists of a layer of polyethylene foam that is sandwiched between two sheets of 99% strength aluminum foil.This material is easy to cut, does not warp, almost does not absorb moisture, is easily bends around any projections and thickening.Also, its advantages are safe for human (hypoallergenic), its ability to reflect heat from the inside and outside.Suitable for exterior insulation of water pipes and tanks, storage tanks, and more.
taps, faucets, valves
It's about-WATER and the shut-off valve, without which it is impossible to imagine the normal operation of the water supply network.
reinforcement plays an extremely important role, of course, must be in working order.If the taps and mixers are always in sight and are in constant use, and therefore the most in need of repairs, the valves of recalled only in cases when it is necessary to block the water for maintenance.
cranes are used for locking and unlocking of the water supply pipe.When the valve is closed, it must effectively deter water pressure, and when opened - to regulate its flow.
cranes come in two forms: desktop and wall.Desktops are used indoors, and wall - anywhere.
cock body is made from steel or brass and has a spout, the spout and the threaded pipe.It is designed to turn the flow Bodi at a certain angle and carry it through the window with a Flat "step" in a circle (the saddle).To it occurs pressing of the valve gasket, thereby overlapping the water path.
head screwed in the body of the crane, which transfers the rotation of the flywheel in a reciprocating motion.Inside the head there is a thread, with the support on which there is a movement to the valve stem.
taps with ceramic discs are convenient and reliable.When their operation is completely eliminated leak.
In appearance they do not differ from cranes with spacers and are therefore interchangeable.But while there are some differences.In valves with ceramic discs head more perfect (no vertical movement, and the support is carried out by means of combining the two gaps in the disks), disks lapped each other (slides only one of them, while the other remains stationary).By turning the flywheel rotates the one drive.When their opening match, the water begins to flow.
Types of cranes: and - a wall;b - table
advantage tap with ceramic discs compared with cranes having gasket and valve is that the stroke of its flywheel is much shorter (turn handwheel on 90 ° - and the water ran with maximum pressure, we turned another 90 °- and the tap is closed).
generate interest cranes with rotating nozzles.They are used mainly in the presence of a multisection sink.
novelty is the cranes with the control panel.With the safety button can avoid an increase in water temperature, if this is not required.
Gone are the days when the crane is set separately for hot and cold water.At the present stage mixer is used.
The body of the mixer combined two taps for hot and cold water.Mixers can be of different designs.Their main purpose - the water supply is the correct temperature.
Mixer body consists of two liner pipes for hot and cold water, two sockets for heads, and also has a spout, the spout.
Some designs mixers a - kitchen faucet;b - kitchen faucet with shower net;in - washbasin mixer with a controlled release
There are two types of mixers, which vary according to the method of connection.It is wall-mounted, with horizontal liner and table water, which pipes are arranged vertically under the sink shelf.
heads in the body of the mixer can also be placed differently.For example, in a desktop mixer "herringbone" heads arranged at a predetermined angle, but in most of faucets installed horizontally.
In the mixer valve shuts only one seat, so the repair of one of the heads is considered as a separate unit repair.
Mount spout effected by the expander ring and union nut.To prevent water from seeping use seals or insulating ring.
to connect to the faucet supply lines with two nozzles require special fittings on the connector.The mixers have improved flow control of the water and its temperature, aerators and valves, through which is possible to connect a dishwasher or washing machine.There are designs that provide simultaneous connection of both machines.
Gates play a very important role, because they are only in an emergency could save your home from flood.
in multi-storey buildings valves can be mounted on tubes in a variety of places, such as in a toilet cistern on in the bathroom at the floor on the side walls of the bathroom and other places.On pipes with hot and cold water must be separate valves.The control valve is usually located at the input or branch from the riser.
In every apartment in every health unit should be a special valve to be able to block the flow of water, if there is a problem and need to urgently repair.Valves on the principle of action and a device similar to the tap (Fig. 16).Just like cranes, gates have a window in the inner septum passage of water to the housing, the valve stem gasket and the reciprocating swing head positioned in the housing.
But structural components of the valve should be more reliable than a crane, as operational valve is always open.Subjected to enormous loads the control valve at the inlet.
materials for the manufacture of valves are brass and cast iron.If the apartment is equipped with cast iron valves, it is advisable to have in reserve a new head of the housing and stem assembly, as with time due to rust the steel rod could merge with cast iron head housing.Preference is better to give a cast iron valves with brass rods, as they are more durable.When buying a new valve should pay particular attention to the design of the valve.
valve device: 1 - a flywheel;2 - plug;3 - gland packing;4 - head body;5 - threaded rod;6 - insulation;7 - Valve gasket
It should be clearly visible in one of the sides of the connection pipes.You also need to make sure that the valve has a gasket, fixed nut.
On the side of the valve adjacent to the seat, can be smooth surface.To install at home this valve is not suitable.It would be bad to contain the water as it is considered fallow.
Usually the valve is in the "open".Closes it only when you want to repair valves, pipes and plumbing fixtures.
pipes and methods of connection
correct choice pipes largely affects the safety of the pipeline and can significantly increase its service life.
pipes must be durable, resistant to soil, groundwater, and stray currents withstand the internal pressure of the water, have a smooth inner surface and a waterproof wall, and, importantly, affordable price.
Produced at the present stage of the pipe to a greater or lesser extent correspond to their business requirements.In this chapter, we will focus on the currently existing types of pipes, as well as their basic characteristics.
types of pipes
tubes differ in the materials from which they are made.Which to choose pipe - it depends, firstly, on their purpose, and secondly, the method of laying as well as your physical features.
steel pipes most commonly used for water supply.When selecting such pipes take into account a wide range of diameters, steel grades, thickness and so on. D.
Steel pipes can be both seamless and welded.The first are more reliable, so they are more expensive.Seamless steel pipe is usually used in the case of welded pipes can not be used.Welded pipes differ in chemical composition and mechanical properties, as made of different kinds of steels.Pipes of this type have relatively high strength and ductility.They can withstand high internal pressures and have much less as compared to cast iron, weight.
The disadvantages of these pipes include their susceptibility to corrosion and relatively short life span.
Steel pipes can be both a corrosion-resistant coating, and without it.As the zinc coating is used, which is deposited electrolytically.Such pipes (galvanized) need not be covered with paint, and an additional primer.Protect from rust should be only those portions of the tubes, which is threaded.
galvanized and non-galvanized steel tubes have different lengths.They may be threaded at one or both ends or without it.
main method of connecting steel pipes - welding.Therefore, we should definitely consider their weldability (with increasing carbon content in the pipes, it is getting worse).
asbestos cement pipes
asbestos cement pipes manufactured from a mixture of Portland cement and asbestos-cement fiber.
Pipes of this type have obvious advantages: low weight, low thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, easy to machining.Even after prolonged use they maintain a smooth inner surface.Besides these tubes are insulators.
Disadvantages also include brittleness, so the installation of asbestos-cement pipes with caution.When strikes and transportation in the pipes can cause cracks.
outer surface of the pipes corrode, and this fact is also necessary to take into account arranging a corrosion protection,
asbestos cement pipes must be laid in the ground, excluding the drawdown to prevent bending of the pipeline as a result of which its normal operation will be compromised.When selecting asbestos-cement pipes, pay particular attention to the ends.Layering materials and breakup are not allowed.
Cast iron pipes
Cast iron pipes produce several types.Tubes made of cast iron poor resistance to dynamic loads.Ductile iron pipes are more widely used.They withstand heavy loads and have good plastic properties.Cast iron pipes metal content.
Ideally, the wall of cast iron pipes should not have fistula, joints slag inclusions.At the turn of the material should be uniform, dense, fine-grained.Cracks and other flaws hidden cast-iron pipes can detect knocking.
have cast-iron pipes are drawbacks.These include: a large mass, considerable metal consumption per 1 m pipe length (compared with steel pipes), and loss of strength in saline soils.
Given the properties of cast iron pipes, it is not necessary to use them in areas with poor soils and in seismically hazardous areas.In order to protect against corrosion of iron pipes inside and outside to be coated with molten bitumen or oil layer whitened high strength cast iron.
addition to corrosion protection, coating the inner surface of pipes makes more smooth.
plastic pipes have many advantages, distinguishes them from others.This corrosion resistance, cold resistance, saving of ductility at low temperature (if the water is frozen, the tube merely inflated and after thawing liquids - narrowed), low thermal conductivity, good capacity, light weight, ease of handling and welding.Pipes from plastic - excellent insulators.
The disadvantage is their low resistance to crushing.
Plastic pipes are suitable for installation in aggressive soils in seismic zones, swampy and mountainous terrain.
In the manufacture of plastic pipes, the following plastics: polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene and others.
PVC and polyethylene is often used in the home due to the fact that they are readily amenable to welding.Polyethylene pipes recommended at low ambient temperatures.
to slow aging and wear plastic pipes, they should be protected from direct sunlight.
Plastic pipes should not have blisters and cracks.Their surface should be smooth, the edges - stripped of burrs and strictly perpendicular to the axis.Therefore, when buying such tubes be very careful.
These tubes were not designed for a long time and have many positive attributes.They are resistant to corrosion and chemically neutral, they do not accumulate fat.In addition, they are easy to bend by hand and can easily bend around the projections even walls.With such a fantastic flexibility, these pipes do not lose their strength.There is also an undoubted advantage of these pipes can be attributed, and a long service life - 50 years or more.
metal-pipe 1 - layers of polyethylene;2 - bonding layer;3 - aluminum
When installing metal-pipe does not require precise adjustment of the size.