The facades are used only those species, which in addition to architectural requirements, quite resistant to atmospheric and climatic influences.So, to the north-western areas are most suitable hard rock, mainly granite, as well as medium-hard rock - marble, dolomite, limestone.Shell rock and tuff in this climatic zone on the facades are rarely used and is usually in the form of separate inserts.
planning the use of natural stone, it is necessary to consider that for all its virtues it as a finished product for the surface treatment is much more expensive materials, and other products that perform a similar purpose (plasters, glass and ceramic tile, aluminum profile elements and others.).
General and architectural requirements in the selection of decorative stone
In most cases, products made of natural stone are cut from a block of blanks or, more rarely, directly from the array.
Facing slabs and architectural and construction parts are manufactured in accordance with state standards or technical specifications, as well as individual orders.
Products from a granite, basalt, gabbro, labradorite, marble and other natural stone rocks are mainly recommended for the decoration of buildings or structures, buildings of monumental character, which are subject to high architectural or special requirements.
for cladding used mainly slabs and architectural and construction products, such as skim boards, skirting boards, steps and others.
block arrays are mainly used for the manufacture of pedestals, monuments, commemorative steles, etc.
Facing plates must be rectangular with cut edges do not have cracks and cavities.After processing they acquire a certain texture front surface: polished, polished, sawn, sanded or heat-treated.
Architectural detail of natural stone are not the subject of mass production and are produced mainly in the specific working drawings.Such facade elements of buildings as bases, capitals of columns, balusters, cornices, portals elements, rods, etc., are carried out only for individual orders.
range of rocks and invoices for these items is determined, as a rule, the regulatory conditions.
Invoices faces similar architectural details invoices facing plates.In addition, these products may also have a "point" the texture and "rock".Texture "rock" is used to puncture the details.As well as facing slabs, parts of granite, gabbro, labradorite, white marble should not have cracks and surface voids.
Products of natural stone to be taken by the technical control of the manufacturer.On the product or packaging is labeling that includes the trademark of the manufacturer, designation of the standard and stamped control department.Each batch of products should have an accompanying document, which specifies the deposit rock stone texture of its front surface, the amount of products and their sizes.The passport number and date also include data about the company and the provider of standard notation.
consumer has the right to make test checks the quality of delivered products.Provisions of the standards set out the requirements and conditions for the transportation of goods.The main task of transport - protect the products from damage and contamination and facilitate unloading.
Some architectural requirements have to choose the stone a major impact.For example, when selecting stone is very important is the degree of durability of sawmills.
degree of durability for vysokodolgovechnyh rocks (fine-grained granite, quartzite) - about 500-700 years;for durable (coarse granite, labradorite, gabbro, syenite) - 200-300 years;for a relatively long-lived (white marble, limestone, dolomite, sandstone dense) - 100-150 years;for the short-lived (colored marbles, tuff, travertine, porous limestone) - up to 50-80 years.
guiding principle when assessing the architectural stone is its decoration.Decorative stone is determined by its texture and color.
color of the stone.The color of natural stone cladding are divided into two groups.
The first group - are achromatic white, gray, black.These stones differ only in brightness.The second group of colored stones.Besides lightness, they are characterized by the hue and saturation of color.The second group is called achromatic.Lightness stones divided into seven stages.
The first stage includes black stones - 3,5-5,7% lightness;second - black and gray - 5,7-9,0% lightness;the third - dark gray - 9,0-14,0% lightness;the fourth - the medium-serye- 14,0-22,0% lightness;the fifth - light gray - 22,0-35,0% lightness;the sixth - a white-gray 35,0-56,0% lightness;the seventh - white - 56,0-89,0% lightness.In the first stages of lightness range is less than the last, since the change in lightness of dark shades different eye better than light.The first and seventh stages correspond to the terms "black" and "white" stone, and intermediate stages define the concept of "gray" stone, they are the same in brightness and "colored stones."The white color is characteristic of some types of marble and limestone, black color - for some labradorite and gabbro.In Armenia, there are deposits of black marble (Harvironskoe deposit).
White and light gray stones largely have easy color saturation - up to 5%, which gives them certain colors.Warm yellow colors increase the decorative white stone, and cold bluish gray decorative increase.Yellow shades of gray stone slightly reduces its decorative.The lighter the stone, the greater the influence of the color tone.Color colored stones is determined by the "average" color.This perception is possible with a certain distance, in which the color components of different rocks merge into a single, medium tone.Colored stones are characterized by the hue and saturation of color.Hue defines the chromatic color belonging to a particular range.
Saturation is the degree of chromatic color distinguish it from the achromatic, his equal in brightness.It is measured in percentage, corresponding to the number of dominant colors in the spectrum of a given color.Lightness chromatic colors characterize the degree of approximation of an absolutely white, is taken as 100%.Spectral components form a color wheel.
for interiors, facades and other surfaces found the combination of stones of various colors and shades.Keep in mind that color adjacent to the polychrome compositions, influenced each other according to the laws of color contrast.Contrast is svetlotny and Chromatic.Svetlotny expressed in changing the light color under the influence of the adjacent colors on a light background just in a darker color darkens, and vice versa.The effect of this contrast is shown, the stronger the greater the difference between the colors in lightness.General terms chromatic contrast consist in the fact that color surrounded chromatic background varies side color complementary to the color of the background.Additional pairs of colors, for example, are: red - blue, green, orange - blue, yellow - blue, yellow and green - purple, green - purple.On the background of its complementary color in each color saturation and wins, respectively, being on a background with the same color tone on it loses it.The greatest effect of the chromatic contrast is detected in the absence of svetlotnogo.Considering the color characteristics of natural stone, and this is important to know the quality as "showiness" fBroskost "stone is determined by its general background color, such as red - the most striking of all the others.
is also necessary to take into account the principles of "protrusion" and "retreat" of colors that depend on the hue, saturation and lightness level."Perform" are all warm tones, "retreating" - cold.Saturated chromatic colors "are the" achromatic and malonasyschennye - "retreat."When the alternation of light and dark colors first "act", the latter "retreat."If the overall assessment of color solutions classic architecture has developed the following recommendations: facing top floor should be lighter, architectural details of facades should emerge on the background wall to trim the lower part of the facade is necessary to use the most decorative color and texture of the stone.In modern architecture and construction practice, these recommendations are not binding.Basically, the requirement is observed over the selection of decorative and durable types of stone for the lower floors - caps.Architectural details on the facade is now reduced to a minimum;field wall cladding on the facade and the interior is designed in a stone of the same breed and the same color.However, knowledge of the general principles of color matching stone you need as an architect-designer and executor of works.
texture of the stone.In assessing the merits of the architectural texture of the stone it is important, depending on the species used stone arrangement, the ratio of elements and other factors determined by the surface texture of a whole, which in terms of the plastic can be a relief, rough, smooth or polished.Maximum detection of color and pattern is achieved in a polished stone texture.As a rule, it is recommended for types of stone with high decorative properties - a granite, marble, for polishing revealed not only the advantages but also the defects of the stone.Sanded, embossed, sawn, heat-treated and point textures significantly reduce the saturation of the background color, but contribute to the lightness of the stone.Plates with the invoice does not have a strong figure, they are offset by the color, which facilitates their combined use in facades and interiors of buildings and other surfaces.
Vysokodekorativnoy invoice is considered "rock."It provides an opportunity to identify the color and structure of the stone, creates a beautiful relief, which gives the surface a vivid expressiveness.Texture "rock" fits well with the texture of ground or sawn.This is typical of products made of granite, limestone Putilov, Saaremaa dolomite.
Texture is typically detailing element in selecting the stone, but it may affect the underestimation on interior architecture.So, in slabs of sedimentary rocks, such as coquina, travertine, limestone, some can be traced trends of sedimentary strata, cavities, etc.Improper positioning or bad layout panels during installation can distort and even worsen view coated surfaces.
requirements for the design of natural stone and architectural DESIGN SOLUTIONS FACING
main thing that determines the properties of the stone in addition to durability lining is chosen correctly and efficiently performed design of natural stone cladding.The durability of stone is much higher than the tiled surface of them, and errors at the device lining can cause premature deformation of masonry bearing walls, although the granite slabs can be a long time in good condition.
Profiled architectural building products mainly manufactured for the restored or built on the orders of the objects.These include the bases of columns, balusters, cornices, portals and other items. Produce them in small quantities and using manual labor.Since the cost of these products is very high, it is important to create the right solution and pour over high decorative qualities.the surface of natural stone, which is the main task of architects and builders.When using stone in the interior are the main requirements of the architecture.When choosing a stone floor accounted for physical and mechanical properties, mainly wearability factor.If heavy traffic (more than 100 persons per hour) abrasion should be no more than 0.5 g / cm 2, which is characteristic of a group of granite stone.With less traffic, abrasion can be increased to 2.0 g / cm 2, which makes it possible to apply at the device of floors and marble stairs, and even marble-like limestone.Designing facing requires consideration of the characteristics of the stone, as the water absorption, frost resistance, the coefficient of softening and others.
Architectural details are made of specially developed working drawings.If necessary for their manufacture are carried out patterns on a scale of 1: 1.Slabs of natural stone are rectangular in shape and size, in addition, enterprise vendors released and unmounted plates (with mill edges) of granite, marble and limestone.This increases the output and makes the architecture more diverse.Slabs of granite unmounted sawn textures are used for the device caps, various playgrounds, plates sawn or "skin coat" is used for billing caps, ground floor walls, steps, etc. stylobatesFor interior decoration (lobby, halls) are used and unmounted plates polished or polished marble and limestone.
In order to maximize the waste of natural stone, decorative plates are used, based on them.Closely related to the perception of natural stone slabs are slabs of stone pieces of regular or irregular.For example, in the interiors of plates are used, the correct form of glued strips of marble.A good effect is achieved in the manufacture of the same color marble slabs with polished or brushed surface.
FACING natural stone vertical surface
Facing the cap.The plinth of the building is perceived as a base front wall, it creates a transition to the sidewalk, travel, blind area or the adjacent lawn.The color, plinth recommended darker than the main field wall that gives it great monumentality.In addition, the plinth of the buildings are located in the area of the most unfavorable conditions;it does not apply atmospheric moisture and dirt, snow causes stagnation of water;fluctuations in temperature, humidity variable impose restrictions on frost resistance of the material.When cleaning sidewalks, driveways base is subjected to mechanical impact, it gets the dirt and various chemical substances.Therefore, the use of natural stone plinth is required from a different perspective.All products meet the requirements of hard stone: granite, gabbro, labradorite.For these purposes may be used, and an average hardness of stones such as sandstone, limestone dense.However, their longevity is significantly lower.
for monumental buildings granite slabs caps are designed with polished surface, which allows you to more fully identify the advantages of decorative material.The height of the cap should be at least 50 cm from the level of the adjoining pavement, passage;in the courtyard facades of its height may be reduced to 35 cm. base and the shape and height, and design solutions are very diverse.It depends on the species of the stone, the size of the building, the architectural composition and topography.Typically, the sockets out of the plane of the wall.The most striking detail is the upper ridge caps, which determines architectural gradation.Granite pedestals of massive blocks of granite adorn the many historic buildings in large cities.
In modern architecture, using more simplified form.Chipped plates to plinths have a maximum height of 1200 mm, length 1500 mm, width 40-60 mm.Application of sawn boards enables to reduce the consumption of stone, cut the cost of works and contributes to development of the production of works.Base of the plates can be as simple as for facing use only granite slab or composite with an additional cordon laying stone.
skirting boards to the wall mounted hooks.With minimal removal of the cap for the face of the wall (20-30 mm) horizontal surface it may not have a special bias, and "removed" small chamfer (leg side 10-15 mm).