In Russia, in ancient times there were ventilated viewing windows, which were cut in two half logs logs.They were called Volokovaya because they are "clouds" inside the board.In winter, t
In the era of Byzantium windows have a narrow elongated shape with rounded at the top.Even in those days architects skillfully adjust the lighting in the temples and houses, skillfully arranging groups of windows on the perimeter of the building or in the dome in order to create a feeling of lightness and airiness (Hagia Sophia in Constantinople).
In the Middle Ages dwellings did not differ architectural delights.On the contrary, for the romance, or as it was called British Norman style was typical of the severity and austerity.Time dictated its terms, and strong feudal castles were a fortified citadel with small narrow windows, which in the case of attack could serve as loopholes.These windows can be seen in the White Tower at the Tower of London, built in the X century.It is in the Romanesque period there are first glazed windows.
With the spread of Christianity in Europe is a gradual submission of architecture religion which completely rejects the human beginning.To replace the Romanesque Gothic style came from her fashion for disembodied and elongated shape.Buildings, and with them all their elements, as if seeking to up to God.Pointed arched openings are located high off the ground and decorated with amazing beauty of stained glass collected from multi-colored glasses and illustrating legends of Old and New Testament.The characteristic element of gothic temple is a stained-glass window "rose", gives rise to associations with the symbol of the Knights Templar warriors.Vivid examples of Gothic style - Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris and Cologne.In the period of late ("flaming") Gothic window apertures shape resembles flames (Church of Saint-Maclou in Rouen).
successor Gothic Renaissance asserts freedom from religious dogmas and worth of the human person.XV century returns interest in the ancient heritage, which was based on the classic forms, symmetry and sense of proportionality.Windows of buildings of this period lose their shape and become elevated rectangular shape, and glass in them become transparent.In the XV century in Italy there were windows, divided into three parts binder in the form of a cross.
As is known, the nature develops from simple to complex.The same law holds for architecture.In the XVI century Renaissance comes to replace the "fancy" baroque style, tending to the use of exquisite decorative forms.Baroque is dynamic, diversity, expression, attraction to the pomp.The architecture of this period, the composite becomes the dominant curve.Windows of buildings of the time have a different geometric shape: a circle, ellipse, etc.For large windows typical of the Baroque, several times divided bindings of different thicknesses and designs.During this period, there are hinged design of windows and double glazing.In the XVII century there is a new technology for manufacturing flat glass.Due to this in France there are more large transparent windows, which began on the floor and became known around the world as the French.
replaced baroque classic forms come with their clarity and brevity.Classicism beginning of the XIX century, distinguished by simplicity, austerity and monumentality.The layout of the buildings observed symmetry and the correct form and the use of architectural elements that existed in ancient times (columns, porticoes).During this period the window acquiring a modern look.They have a classic rectangular shape and two pairs of bindings.Also common windows with decorative lattice on the lower wings or arched window lintels.
Since the mid XIX and early XX century architecture dominated by eclecticism, which has absorbed the echoes of all styles, successfully combining them to create new forms.The main achievement of eclecticism was the refusal from strict classical forms and the approval of the creative freedom of architects.Because of eclecticism in vogue include oriental motifs: Moorish, Chinese, Egyptian, etc.Since the period of eclecticism to the period of rapid industrial development, the windows become extremely functional purpose.There are windows with window, T-shaped cover, as well as the triple-bottom windows with large and small and top flaps.
At the end of XIX-early XX century Art Nouveau appears, or Art Nouveau, which declared rejection of the straight lines and angles in favor of a smooth curved shapes.Art Nouveau architecture combines functionality and aesthetics.All building elements are created in the same style decision, while widely used in the construction of new technologies and materials (glass, metal).The Art Nouveau style made famous Eiffel Tower.During this period, strict geometric forms gives way to more rounded and smooth.Bright representative of modernist Antoni Gaudi boldly experimented with the appearance of buildings and shape of the windows, which seem likely the handiwork of nature, rather than the person (Bone House, Park Guell).In general, modern style is inherent in a huge variety of forms of windows, symbolizing the desire for freedom of expression and liberation of the spirit.Often on one facade of the building was not even two identical windows.
Since 1910 there is a new trend in architecture called functionalism, which is one of the branches of modernism.In the foreground the functionality of the building.This is reflected in the unit asymmetrical windows large and small doors.Functionalism of the second half of the XX century using minimalist form the box, but the basic material for the construction of buildings are gray concrete slabs.Buildings of this period - the faceless soulless buildings with flat roofs, characterized rough finish.The windows of the small houses, closed and heavy.For non-residential buildings used tape glazing.
The 1920-1930 development receives constructivism, characterized by rigor, concise manner.This style of performs factory-kitchen, workers' clubs, palaces of labor, etc.in the light of constructivism box gets strict geometric (square or rectangular) form.As part of this trend from 1919 to 1933 there Bauhaus.Ideologists etoog direction believed that architecture should be strictly functional, economical and technology-oriented mass production.
replaced constructivism comes gorgeous Art Deco style that existed in the 20-50-ies of XX century.Its characteristic features - ethnic geometric patterns, chic, modern materials (aluminum, stainless steel).The architecture is widely used Jog and zigzag shapes, bold curves that have nothing to do with the smooth and soft lines of Art Nouveau.In a fashion includes flat roofs, open plan and ribbon windows, which could be stretched along the entire facade.The American branch of the Art Deco is modern STREAMLINE.In this style, built lecture theaters Radio Music Hall and the famous spire of the Chrysler Building skyscraper in New York.
At the end of the XX century there is a new trend in architecture - postmodernism.A striking example of the building, built in a similar style - Opera House in Sydney.A characteristic feature of this style was the unification of methods, motives and movements from different eras to create a creative space in which freely intertwine meaningful images.This trend has become to some extent the rejection of functionalism, and the proclamation of the leading role of aesthetics.
Currently, the greatest relevance acquired areas such as neo, hi-tech, deconstruction and Biotech, united in a group called neomodernism.
Hi-tech - an architectural style that originated in the 80s of XX century, architecture is perceived as an engineer.Building in high-tech style can be easily separated by the abundance of glass and plastic, the presence of tubular structures made of metal, the widespread use of silver-colored metal and elements of cubism and constructivism.Also, for high-tech typical tape glazing or glazing large surfaces.
ultra modern architectural movement of the bio-tech achieves expression by borrowing from natural forms.This area is not yet fully formed, so it lacks practicality and functionality.Architectural bionics contrasts rectangular structure of buildings and curved shapes.This trend also has been called "architectural bionics", "eco-tech", "biourbanizm."In this style, built British National Space Centre, Art Museum in Milwaukee, USA.
window has a long history.From the time when it was just a hole in the wall and up to the point where it has become a complex modern design, it took many centuries.Today, the window does not only affect the overall impression of the building.Thanks to modern materials and technology, they provide indoor comfort by adjusting the temperature and noise level.
The question of what kind of architectural style and type evrookon choose for your home is not easy.Experience shows that one of the most popular styles is a classic modern cottages with his usual variety of geometric shapes of windows: rectangular, square, arched, round, ellipsoidal, triangular, and even trapezoidal.Today, euro may even be stained.
Russia is also gaining popularity small cottages in a Scandinavian style, which is characterized by simplicity and environmental friendliness.In such houses, as a rule, establish eco-friendly Euro windows with double or triple glazing.
Broad demand for houses in the Art Nouveau style.Windows on the facade of the house can be different.
in recent years have increasingly come home, imitating the national Russian hut.In such houses can be installed wooden windows with decorative profiles.