works begin not earlier than six months after the full completion of masonry walls on all their height.At stresses in masonry up to 0.5 MPa facing work can begin three months after the end of the masonry walls on all their height, and at voltages up to 0.05 MPa cladding can begin immediately after the end of the brickwork.Facing simultaneously with a laying of walls is carried out in rare cases.
Before starting work on the outer and inner lining should be completed all the work, the implementation of which may damage the finish of the stone.Facing work begins with transferring the horizontal in nature (in the plan) and vertical (at different levels of height) marks facing structural elements.The application marks all levels and layouts are based on the working drawings of the project.Balloon lengths of lines in nature predetermined pattern lining and its marks - the levels of the various elements of buildings - produced with the help of mea
Before installing the boards facing the wall surface is prepared.Its clean, notch, or if the design requires it, pull a metal grid.Next, the alignment planes of masonry and applied design marks lines, axes angles, pilasters, window openings, horizontal lines.Proveshivajut surface stones and set them beacons.
Provesku produce the entire height of the building - from the foundation to the crowning cornice.First proveshivajut outer corners of the building, and then the plane of the walls and other protruding or sinking down of the angles of the structural elements proveshivajut after staking the corners of the building.First proveshivajut first corner facade and define the magnitude of the deviation from the vertical wall, then proveshivajut next corner take-out and determine the face of the plate facing the light of its thickness and the minimum size of the gap between tiles and the wall.Then finally fixed wire-lighthouse on both pins.
Provesku walls produced by floor, pulling along prichalku jumpers openings.Pins are driven into the vertical joints in such a way that the wire touches the angular wires - beacons hinged earlier.After proveski on each floor and the area bounded by the facade articulations, determine the shortest distance between the wall and prichalku.After proveski wall mounted brand, which strengthens at a distance, to any place it was possible to check the stove Rule 1.5 m. Stamps knock as device coatings.If the mounting plate facing is mainly provided through the use of metal fasten (without reinforcement), the preparation of the surface for finishing natural stone as follows.
first check the verticality of the wall for plumb flat part of 2-3 m, as well as at points of fracture in the entire height of the facade of the building and the floor.
if necessary washed with plane walls strong jet of water from a hose.Namechayut horizontal cord on an outer surface facing the first row of its height.Drill holes in the wall for the mounting plate according to the size and the pitch of a foothold.
lining the interior walls of natural stone slabs on solutions and mastics allowed after the load on the wall to reach at least 65% of the project.Prior to the inner lining of the work must be done on the device of a roof or waterproof coatings on lined part of the building, installation boxes in the window and door openings, as well as on all kinds of hidden transactions.Wall covering device to perform clean floors.In areas that are subject to the lining with the solutions in the winter temperature is maintained at not less than + 10 ° C and a relative humidity of less than 70%.
at flooring slabs of natural stone base is a concrete screed or preparation of the grout is not less than 150. Substrate Preparation includes cleaning of dirt and debris, moisture, or the installation of lighthouses Lighthouse tapes.The most efficient method of marking the surface of the floor or the base is in each room by using leveling or water levels are applied in the form of dashes mark on all walls.Sex divided into squares with a side of 2 m, then at any point of the room is set majachnye marks or longitudinal majachnye tape.
MASTIC Alya and mortar buildings decoration decorative stones
Pastes - these are mixtures which contain adhesive with a solvent, which is added to mill ground or pulverized natural (chalk, cement, Marshall), and polymeric materials.
well-chosen mixture of inorganic binder, fine aggregate, water and, where necessary, inorganic and organic additives called solutions.Mortar and mastic should provide strong adhesion being lined with natural stone surface.Solutions for external facings of natural stone should be no less than the brand, which is specified in the project.The most commonly used solutions brands 100-150.To prepare the solution used portlandtsemnty and additives thereto, which increase the hydrophobicity of the solutions, such as oil soap and silicone fluids.
During operation the solution should not form efflorescence on the surface of the stone.To prevent efflorescence recommended for preparing the solutions used pozzolan Portland cement is not below 300, the washed coarse sand and solutions with a low water-cement ratio (0.45-0.50).To do this, you must enter the mixing water plasticizers (oil soap, sulfite-alcohol brew, and others.).
to establish panels of dark tones using conventional mortars, and in the case of cladding particularly pale natural stones, such as white marble, limestone and other light in order to avoid the appearance of spots - solutions on white cement or mortar.
mobility grout for cladding panels and parts of the decorative stone is set in the range of 8-10 cm. Cement mortars should be used no later than 1.5 hours after preparation.In winter when the air temperature to - 10 ° C in a solution of sodium nitrite must be administered in an amount of up to 10% by weight of cement.
Application of sodium chloride and potassium carbonate as an antifreeze additives is not recommended as their use can cause efflorescence on the wall.
for cladding indoor natural stone used liquid cement-lime-sand mortar and karboksitsementno-sand, or polyvinyl acetate (P C) mastic.
Preparation and delivery of the solution, its reception, additional mixing, transportation to jobs and applying to the veneering surface is carried out using mortar units and units for feeding mixtures.
for small work surfaces for facing slabs of decorative stone recommended dry cement mixtures that supply to the object in a closed container, the solution of which is prepared on-site production of works in the mobile mortar.
facing products PREPARING FOR INSTALLATION OF STONE
as cladding material for exterior decoration is most often used dense limestone, sandstone, dolomite, marble, tuff, granite.Due to the difficulty handling rarely used diorite, quartz, labradorite, gabbro and other rock hardness at compression is 100-400 MPa.
facing products in the form of stones regular and irregular, and various architectural details to the construction site comes ready to use form.Polished, glazed, sanded and treated with ultrasound products and architectural details to be supplied in a container adapted for mechanized loading and unloading.Products must be installed in pairs of facing surfaces to each other, are laid paper, cardboard, hardboard or wooden spacers and secured with wedges.Products from the front surface of the other invoices can be delivered unwrapped, but must be met measures to prevent damage and contamination of products.
Facing goods made of natural stone should come to the construction site in the lattice boxes or containers, sorted by type, size and color.
Custom products must be marked with their place when installed in accordance with the construction project.At the construction site facing stones and slabs laid out with the order of their installation.For a firm grip facing products made of natural stone with a solution of the rear side if necessary before installing cleaned from dust and dirt.
To prevent the plate and the lining elements from the spray solution and stains during their installation, polished surface can hang paper, and coated with a liquid hewn diluted clay.Clay and paper is removed or washed away at the end of work.
order to prepare products for decorative stone installation, you should check its various parameters and thus bring all deviations to standards, adjust the size to be installed in a specific location on the facade and in the interior, to cut through the mechanisms of the grooves, quarters, drillholes, chamfering, etc.
When accepting the product the first operation carried out selectively.When carrying out its product dimensions and chips on their ribs checked to within 1 mm metal ruler or tape measure and square;angles between adjacent end faces check metal squares with a side of not less than 500 mm;neploskostnoy to determine the face of the superimposed metal ruler on the perimeter and diagonal of the product and measure the lumen;to determine whether the straightness profile products line superimposed on the profile of the ridge;determine the quality of the texture measuring instruments or visually.
second operation consists in bringing slabs and products to the required geometric dimensions.This is done when necessary to eliminate the defects of delivered products.The most common defects are associated with a deviation from the right angle in conjunction adjacent edges of plates and cutting edges of chips on them.Defects are found and fit plates for installation of the mounting position.Trimming plates needed in the formation of internal and external angles at junctions field wall to window and door openings, with the design of walls, columns, pilasters.
Similar operations to make on-site kamnerezatelnyh machines or using power tools.Small fitting (jokes) can be made with hand tools.
third operation - is drilling holes for the installation of anchors and pyrones.In addition, it is associated with recess grooves quarters chamfering.These operations are performed in a workshop with special tools.
plates Drilling required for all boards, which are installed on the facades.
Grooves, chamfering, rebating, edging angle produced when facing columns, pilasters, external corners, columns, piers, stages in the device of the constituent elements.
KRELEZHNYE DETAILS Alya CONNECTIONS FACING elements together
member for the outer and inner lining are connected to each other and to the wall with metal pins, clips, clamps, secure.All of them must be protected from corrosion.For this steel elements previously coated with a layer of zinc or aluminum.Flex foothold after applying anti-corrosion coating is prohibited.Some plants use fasteners made of stainless steel, non-ferrous metals and alloys (copper, bronze, brass).
Related elements of the outer and inner lining are connected end to end, steps and canted.When connecting the butt end faces of the stones in contact with the slab thickness up to 150 mm to avoid relative displacements can use steel pins and staples.Pins (pyrones) made of round steel with a diameter of 3-8 mm in length and 30-60 mm are used in horizontal and vertical joints.The pins are introduced into the slots drilled in adjoining cells facing half their length.Staples made of round or strip of metal.In horizontal or vertical seams perpendicular to the plane of the plate.In order not to increase the thickness of the suture in the platens and the grooves cut in them, they give birth to the bracket.
Fasteners for connection to a wall of stones.Facing the wall connected with metal anchors and secure, which are simple and combined hooks, pins, clips, etc.Simple hook made of round stainless steel with one curved end.The dimensions depend on the size of the hook elements facing.The hooks are placed in horizontal rows on the two pieces in the plate.Depth termination hooks into the wall should be at least 100 mm.
Combined hooks are made of stainless steel and is used for simultaneous connection elements facing each other and with the wall.Each horizontal row of set of two pieces per plate.For fixing marble, dolomite, limestone slabs used mainly brass, copper, obmednennye anchor or anchors made of stainless steel.
Facing multi-storey buildings to reduce the burden and protect the reference number of the shrinkage deformation of the walls is recommended to tiers.Unloading reference number can be installed on structural elements lined walls and separated from the underlying tier compensation seam width of 5-15 mm.The liners, which are constructed on the finished wall, use a bearing on the discharge of a number of steel elements of angle steel, enshrined in the bearing wall.If the junction of the seam is open, it is filled with sealant.For individual designs of stone specially designed mount.
finish of buildings of natural stone in both conventional and winter conditions
The works of decoration of buildings with natural stone after the start of training stones surfaces of stone and fasteners.Basically the outer cladding has performed on the finished surface.Before starting work on the facades cleaned sagging and streaks of mortar and concrete, frost, snow and ice.How is the facing of buildings with slabs of natural stone?
building facing slabs of natural stone is carried out: a fixture on the anchor and the solution;the thickness of the plate on the facade must be from 30 to 40 mm, in the interior of 20-30 mm, 20-40 mm sinus;to a solution close to the wall inside the building (for slab thickness of 10-15 mm) and a height not more than two storeys;on the slope away from the wall to the left between the wall and the lining of space and the development of a special attachment design.Such a structure is called melt lining.
method of fastening elements lining is made depending on the type of walls and their operating conditions.When working on the wall covering in the fix and the solution leaving the horizontal expansion joints in the masonry brick walls between the rows of brick masonry is carried out V-shaped loops-releases for fixing them working valves.Mesh loops Editions satisfied depending on the calculated voltage in a brick wall (MPa).After the erection of the building work is mounted valves, by welding it to the loops-releases.Then install the solution on the lining plate, attaching them to the working armature hooks.For these purposes the hooks of only non-corrosive metals with cross-sectional area not less than the sectional area of the loop, issues (in terms of 1 m2 wall, considering that the hinges dvuhsreznye).Adjacent cladding elements interconnected pins and staples.The correct position of the plates with the installation process can be achieved by using wooden wedges and then extracted.The angles formed by the wall plates and field apertures, in most cases, is formed on the output ends of the plates face angle.
Simultaneously with conducting the field tiling the walls produce lining windows and doorways.Plates fixed to the pre-installed operating ancillaries.Interconnected elements staples.When facing jumper plate is mounted on the supporting angles.Instead of facing lintel jumpers they can be painted with grout and organosilicate or perhlorvinil colors to match the stone.