The history of the family estate
Russian manor appeared almost seven centuries ago.Even in ancient Russia in any village could find a house that stood out from the others in importance and scope - that is the prototype of the family estate.The word "manor" is derived from the verb "sit down."In other words, the estate became the home for the person and the place
active development "estate culture" has received in the era of Peter I, after he distributed the land to its approximate and associates.But the real heyday has come to place in the first half of the XVIII century.At this time, after the decree of Peter III «On the release of nobles from compulsory public service", the entire European part of Russia began to appear numerous generic nest.Nobles were leaving Moscow and St. Petersburg, moved to his estates, where everything was created for a comfortable life and celebrate life.Education owners of estates scattered throughout Russia, and Russian and European fascination with the art of making their homes in these centers of culture and education in the province.But let's not forget about the landlords' houses in the city, which turned into a no less important historical monuments: Sheremetyevo manor eagles, Golitsyn, Kuzminki, Sokolniki, Pashkovo, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, and many others.
gradually develops architecture ancestral homes.Granges no longer hide behind high fences and build of brick and wood, stucco under a rock.As for the interior decoration of homes, it is also modified.Earlier in the Russian huts arranged dining room away from the residential part of the house, it is now becoming the main hall of the premises located in the heart of the estate.Several rooms form a single front zone, while the rest are hidden from the eyes of the guests and family members belong.
estate owner proudly showed their possessions.And it than admiring walls decorated Chinese wallpaper, luxurious paintings and mirrors in rich framework, marble staircases and fireplace area, decorated with gold and malachite, exquisite handmade art parquet, which was so nice to waltz and mazurka.Built-in benches have replaced chairs and armchairs, which easily allows you to convert the front room to dance and place the guests at the banquet table.
Utility rooms, so necessary in every estate, still built of wood, at least - made of stone, which allowed during the warm season to store food reserves.But the main pride of the owner of the estate was considered a garden, which gave the special charm of exotic trees and shrubs in pots, clipped under the fanciful shapes of animals, people, and geometric shapes, as well as the ornate alleys, which were lost in the simple.Required was a fountain, marble, elegant vases and stone sculptures, excursions.Garden area was unimaginable without the buildings, designed for summer recreation and entertainment - cozy gazebo, benches, greenhouses, dovecote and grottos.
How do family estate
new emperor and new trends in architectural fashion, of course, brings a change in the arrangement of ancestral estates.So, during the reign of Elizabeth Manor significantly "increased in breadth."The interior of the rooms and add new types of wallpaper and mirrors visually increase the already considerable space.The old furniture was replaced by a new mahogany brought from England itself.Facades of houses were decorated with stucco compositions, sculptures, window openings framed in lush frames, roofs and "hide" behind gables and parapets.But all the same for the construction of a main house and outbuildings and finishing rooms using native Russian and, as we would say today, eco-friendly materials: wood, stone, paper wallpaper, marble, granite and other semi-precious stones.
device the estate was generally the same for all regions of Russia, but Moscow still masterful brought their own characteristics in the design of the estate.The main house has remained in the depth of plot and auxiliary buildings framed "front" yard, fenced off from the street "transparent" fence.
increasing popularity for interior decoration ceremonial hall acquire the mirror.Located in front of the windows and even the spaces suites, they created a sense of infinite space.An example is extant near Moscow estate Kuskovo.In an effort to "push" the wall is widely used technique of artistic painting.In the staterooms, offices and bedrooms depict landscapes and natural park scenes that at the request of owners of the house is easily hidden behind velvet curtains.
At the end of the XVIII century noticeable changes occur in the architectural design of generic estates.The owners of estates gradually abandon boundless suites and often arranged windows, serves as a source of cold in winter and excessive heat in summer.Colors become calmer state rooms and at the same time majestic.The special atmosphere of the hall give the numerous decorative items: paintings, draperies, lamps and chandeliers, carelessly left a volume of poems and exquisite tea set.These are interior and had a true value of life, emphasizing the "character" of the house.
in recent years of the XVIII century country manor is a place ruled by pure and wildlife, quiet beauty and serenity of this leisurely existence.The estate only come close to the owners, guests, which spend intellectual poetry evening, watch the performance home theater or play music for four hands.This tranquil and soulful atmosphere ancestral estates to "grow" a lot of bright minds of Russia, declared itself in the next century.And so it ended its existence era heyday manorial estates - just like coming to the logical end of a nice evening spent in a circle of close friends.
End 'pastoral era "and summer seasons
point in the heyday of ancestral estates set revolution.Most of the estates had been burned or destroyed, the other given to the "good people" at rest homes, sanatoriums and mental hospital.In a difficult time for the Russian people the importance of estates was lost, they more concerned a matter of survival and well-being even in the city.
new stage of suburban life - or rather, the villa, came after almost half a century.During the reign of Khrushchev, the Soviet people were allowed to acquire their own suburban area the size of 6 hectare.But to build a family estate for such a small plot of land was not allowed to laws and regulations which already canceled Brezhnev, allowing to build a "hut", the area of which, however, can not exceed 25 square meters.At that time, suburban area regarded more as a source of replenishment of food stocks, which became especially important during food shortages in the hungry 80s.What can you say about the construction at that time?Few seek opportunities to build a house, the more even in the least refined and exclusive.Because building materials were available only brick is not very good quality, wood and cement.The rooms put old furniture brought from urban apartments, and especially did not care about design and style of the room.
Modern ancestral manor
If Europeans can proudly tell you about the history of his family, to spend through the halls of the family homestead, to show where their great-grandmother accepted the offer of the future spouse, or a place where there is a gala receptions, then we are no longer able totalk about pedigree pet than on their own.It happened in our country.But more and more often today people come to an understanding of what it means for them the history of his family.The construction of "family nest" - the first step towards the restoration of the former role of generic estates, conservation and respect for the history of their ancestors.
Today "estate" can be called a fairly large plot of land with various outbuildings, "master's" house, a place for recreation and as a rule, a swimming pool and a playground.Of course, life in a modern "family nest" is different from what was available to our ancestors.Modern suburban settlements are built with well-designed infrastructure and their residents have access to all the benefits of civilization, but one thing remains the same - a life in harmony with nature and with ourselves.Endless expanses, green or snow-covered fields, natural ponds, horseback riding and boating do not cease to be "fashionable" for almost 200 years.
As before, people tend to make their "nest" to be passed on from generation to generation, unusual, special, or as we now say - exclusive.That is why the future owners of estates bought houses individual projects, using creative solutions in the field of landscape art, are turning to professional designers and selected areas located near the picturesque ponds and forests.The facade and interior of the house can be made in any style, the benefit of modern technology of construction and decoration allow to do it.Modern high-tech, colonial style, strict modernist - the choice is almost unlimited.All this allows you to arrange a special world in accordance with its conception of the family home.
Building on a century
modern owners' estates "prefer houses built and decorated with natural materials: wood, stone, environmentally friendly plaster, fabric wallpaper, etc.This is not only prestigious but also safe from an environmental standpoint.Of course, this "game" the texture and texture of materials can create a unique interior of a modern family houses.If earlier because of the large windows of the inhabitants of ancient estates froze in winter and left to languish in the heat during the warm season, today plastic windows and advanced insulation materials allow you to implement any project at home, where it will be warm in cold weather and cool in summer.
architects and engineers who design modern ancestral manor, paying great attention to the choice of heat-insulating materials, because it is not a summer suburban home where families spend a limited amount of time, and a house for permanent living.So, in a modern cottage construction has been widely used natural material, stone wool ROCKWOOL Light Bats - thanks to its environmental safety, fire protection, and ease of installation.As the insulation is often used stone wool ROCKWOOL ACOUSTIC Bats with high sound absorption.
«The idea of tribal estates positive»
idea of revival mansions found approval and Dmitry Medvedev.More in 2007 in its open Internet communication to the question "What do you think about the idea of restoring the family estate?" He replied: "The idea of tribal estates positive.This is useful for the country as a whole and for the individual.It is much more pleasant to live in nature than in the city. "Examples Revival estate culture are not only the "estates", located along the New Riga, Rublevo Assumption and Dmitrov highway, but a few thousand of miles from Moscow.The well-known director and actor Nikita Mikhalkov culture built his family home in the Nizhny Novgorod region.It is this land belonged to the nobility before the Revolution Konchalovsky.And after 2000 Mikhalkov became ennoble the territory of the estate area neither more nor less than 115 hectares (almost 8 football fields!).From selected logs were built guest house, security house, house church princely chambers, stables and servants' dining room.Of course, the "lordly" life imposes its own obligations, and not only because Mikhalkov spends time in his estate, and maintains order in the land entrusted to him.
The family homestead is certainly underlines the status of the person, his opportunities.But the real "nest" is not created due to the prestigious location and exclusive furniture, discharged from France, but due to the unique aura of the house, its "soul."A special role is played by the family and antique items stored in each family, regardless of how life evolved and whether the temptation to sell the family heirloom.Photos, icons, rugs, antique furniture and other items from the "history" create the very atmosphere "ancestral manor."
The era of urbanization and "cold" high-tech gradually giving way to more comfortable and "living" lifestyle.People no longer want to suffocate in dusty and polluted metropolitan areas - they tend to a natural, pure and unadulterated.The blessing of civilization allows to build modern and sophisticated accommodation outside the city in a pristine nature.How to equip a new "nest" and spend their leisure time, they prompt you to experience and traditions of their ancestors.
Editor: Roman Adamov