Then, in the 50s of the 20th century, all this seemed completely unrealistic.However, in 1970, scientists from the Washington introduced the concept of "smart home" - it was about the buildings, which will create favorable conditions for human life, for example: automatically increase or decrease the room temperature, cover the water in case of leakage sewer pipes includesecurity alarm when breaking the fr
These prophecies scientists seemed to most ordinary citizens of the same fiction, like the works of Bradbury.Perhaps people and live in these homes, but only in the far-distant future ... Meanwhile, technological advances just two or three decades gained so rapidly, that the "distant future" has come faster than expected.And now in different countries designed and built "smart home".
Among the leaders of this progressive housing - the Scandinavian countries, particularly Denmark.And let not everyone lives in Dane "smart house", but these homes are no longer perceived as a fantasy.Most Danes lives in homes, which can be said - "built with the mind» ...
minimalism and practicality
If we talk about houses Danes (regardless of whether "smart" they are either the most common), the first thingit should be noted that they differ markedly from the housing Russians.
Imagine that we have come to normal Danish cottage settlement.The first thing that will seem to us, the Russians, the country - houses adjoining land is not taken to protect meter fence, as we have.The boundaries of different domains marked rather arbitrarily - paths of pebbles or "green wall" of low bushes.But perhaps all is unusual for Russian eyes full - no on site at the home of various outbuildings (baths, barns, summer kitchens), as well as slides, sandboxes and children's pools.Garden plots from the garden and berry bushes, too, is not observed.Given their simplicity Danes prefer to see the house neat lawn, parking lot car, table and chairs, toys on the porch when children are present - and all.Nothing extra.
House Cottage Dane soon surprise us with the presence of large windows, which is not accepted tightly hang thick curtains and drapes, if they are used for aesthetic design of the home.In some places even it meets the so-called "French window", through which, if desired, can go outside.Sometimes it cuts through the original hole, additional skylights.All this is necessary to ensure that the premises was more light and had to use electric lights during the day.
While in Russia, especially in the north where the winters are very cold, decided to build a house so that the floor was at the highest level from the ground, in Denmark, where the climate is also very severe - the opposite.Sex in the Danish home is almost on the same level with the ground.And while in a home heat and energy is not wasted.The secret of the Danish energy house lies in a special process.But this speech will be held later.
Interior Danish home is so minimalist that the Russian man accustomed to carpets, cupboards with figurines, TV in every room, a large crystal chandelier on the ceiling will seem uncomfortable.The cottage is a place for Danish TV - in the living room, which is connected to the kitchen by the type of studio.There are chairs and a sofa.Living room - a room for socializing with family, receive guests, so it is quite roomy.If a family member needs to work at home, in the living room can be a table.In general, the Danes believe that it is necessary to work in the offices, and the house is designed for relaxing and socializing with family and friends.
Kitchen Danish home is equipped with everything you need: a stove with an oven (mainly gas), furniture, appliances for ease of cooking.Instead of the usual for us chandeliers from the ceiling Danes use different lamps to provide accent lighting: lamps placed on top, a sink in the kitchen, the dining table.Thus, energy is wasted, and the light thus sufficient for the job.In other rooms, with the same purpose used sconces, spotlights, table lamps.The main thing - to be comfortable.Of course, light bulbs throughout the house - energy saving.And yet the Danes love to light candles - they are cozy and are an additional source of light and heat in the room.
Bedroom Dane is only for recreation, so there is no TV, computer.The furniture in this room, as well as throughout the house - the most simple: shelves, comfortable wardrobes, chairs, beds.The walls in the bedroom, the living room, the kitchen is usually plain, plastered and painted, sometimes sticked wallpaper (usually light: white or beige simple textures).No frills in the decoration of the walls is observed.Several different looks children's room.Here, in a single room of the entire house, you can find a carpet on the floor and bright wallpapers.The children's room has a comfortable for the baby furniture, a place to carry out the lessons and, of course, a lot of toys.
distinctive feature of the interior of the Danish home is considered to be easy.The Danes like to use in the interior lovely heart trinkets, figurines, but they will fit into the overall design solution house is pleasant and cozy home addition.Exception - a children's room where special atmosphere of "creative chaos": on racks and shelves adorn numerous crafts of young inhabitants of the house, on the walls - pictures.The Danes are encouraging children's desire for self-fulfillment through work, considering it an important part of the spiritual and intellectual development.Children's drawings can be seen even in the kitchen - loving parents attach them to the refrigerator magnets.
home Energy: savings without sacrificing comfort
main secret Danish house - in its energy efficiency.Danes prefer to save properly, wisely, that is not on the materials and technologies in housing construction, and energy consumption during its operation, as payment for electricity and heating in the country is quite high.Currently, the Danish government implemented a plan to further improve the energy efficiency of buildings - 2015 is planned to reduce energy consumption by 50%.
So, turn to the technologies used in the construction of the house.The Danes there is no single "recipe" for the construction of buildings, so that all the different houses - brick, wood, concrete.Building Technologies is also different, but the most commonly used frame and panel-frame method of construction of houses.These technologies invented, incidentally, in the Scandinavian countries, are fairly simple, and help to build a house as soon as possible.Furthermore, an example of these technologies is conveniently shown as a properly insulated home.
So when frame technology on the warm side of insulation vapor barrier is laid film, then he insulation - stone wool boards of the Danish company Rockwool, windproof membrane.Then, from the premises made interior and exterior - cladding of the facade.Incidentally, there are nuances in the selection of insulation boards with different construction technologies: the wireframe method used ROCKWOOL Light Bats, if the walls are brick - Kavita Bats, for plaster facades - FRONT Bats, for ventilated facades - FAN Bats.In addition to the wall plates are insulated roof and floor, after all these structures are responsible for 40% of the energy consumed by the building.
Danes are very closely related to insulation work, especially for thermal insulation "cold bridges" - sections of the building, where, due to certain reasons for the increased heat transfer takes place (it is, for example, window and door lintels,basement plinths and so on).They carefully handle all the joints between the panels are cut from sealing or insulation strips and lay in these places.
helps prevent the penetration of cold in the house and double glazing on the windows.The space between glass panes of glass pumped special inert gas, which contributes to better thermal protection of windows.To heat did not go away through the glass, on the surface can be applied very thin protective layer, which passes into the structure of the sun's heat, warming the room and would not let him out.Incidentally, the Danes are buying for your home windows with aluminum or wooden frames, which produces, for example, a Danish company Velux.Such double-glazed windows are more environmentally friendly than common in the Russian PVC profiles.
Danes actively seek and use alternative sources of energy, especially after the 1973 oil crisis, when there was a forced mass conversion to coal.Danish authorities, concerned about the negative impact on the ecology of the products of fossil fuel combustion, called on citizens to use as wind energy capacity.And now, wind turbines generate more than 20% of all electricity in the country.Many owners of country houses together and invest in co-op, which puts wind turbine generating the necessary energy for lighting and heating of several houses.Also as an alternative source of energy is used to sunlight.To do this, on the roof installed solar collectors, which are used to produce hot water for bathrooms and for technical purposes.
Particular attention is paid to the house in the Danish seal the front door, as it is it can become additional "gateway" to the cold.As a rule, between the street and the entrance door directly into the living room has a vestibule.The Danes believe that the construction of a vestibule is most effective in the fight against heat loss through the door.
The Danish house there and ventilation system with heat recovery, also helps keep the heat in the room while providing a home of fresh air from outside.The main principle of this system is that the heat exchanger is installed in the building - a heat exchanger in which fresh outdoor air entering the inside through the ventilation system, the indoor air is heated with heat removed from the premises.Thus, the heat is not lost in vain, and the room at the same time ventilated.
And in Danish house has sensors that help master control room climate.Most conventional residential buildings in Denmark is not equipped with an automatic climate control system, as in "smart homes."The host itself checks the sensors and, depending on the parameters can be adjusted manually microclimate.And in the first and second cases, the effect is the same.
So the main advantage of the Danish house - in the comfort of life and enegoeffektivnosti.Danes prefer to invest in high-quality construction with the use of new technologies because they know that it will pay off in a few years.Energy costs in such a house is 5 times lower.The Danes are attentive to the choice of building materials for their homes - all of them are safe for health.Thus, in the Danish house combines simplicity of design with energy efficiency solutions that create a comfortable space for life.