Since the beginning of 2000 entered into force new requirements for thermal protection of protecting designs.The device is a sufficient level of thermal protection allows you to save up to 50% of the energy consumed for heating.In this connection, the feasibility of a one-time investment in home insulation is not in doubt, otherwise the owner will have to heat not only their home, but also outside.
WHAT heat transfer
roof, walls and windows are called the outer building envelope due to the fact that they protected the home from all sorts of atmospheric conditions - low temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and wind.With the formation of the temperature difference between the inner and oute
Heat-shielding properties of external enclosures, standardized in accordance with the building code SNIP II-3-79, taking into account the average temperature and duration of heating period in the construction area (SNIP 23.01-99).For Moscow and Moscow region given thermal resistance R0 walling should be at least 3.2 m2 ° C / W.Shielding properties will depend on the wall thickness and its thermal conductivity coefficient of the material from which it is constructed.If the wall consists of several layers (say, brick-heater-brick), its heat resistance will depend on the thickness and thermal conductivity of the material of each layer.
Heat-shielding properties enclosing structures to a large extent depend on the moisture content of the material.Almost all building materials contain minute pores which are filled with dry air.Humid pores are filled with moisture, thermal conductivity is compared with air 20 times, and this leads to a dramatic reduction of heat-insulating characteristics, both to materials and structures.In this connection, in the process of design and construction need to provide for measures that would prevent wetting designs precipitation, groundwater and moisture produced by condensation of water vapor.
In the operation of buildings because of the impact of internal and external environment for the building envelope materials are not completely dry, but differ somewhat humid.This inevitably leads to an increase in thermal conductivity materials, as well as to decrease their insulating ability.That is why the thermal protective performance evaluation structures important to use the actual value of the thermal conductivity in the operating conditions, rather than in the dry state.The moisture content of the warm indoor air is higher than the cold outside, and as a result of the diffusion of water vapor through the thickness of the fence always comes from the warm room into the cold.
If the outside of the fence are dense material that badly passes water vapor, then the moisture, without being able to go outside, will begin to accumulate in the interior design.And if the outer surface of the material is not preventing the diffusion of water vapor, then all the moisture is removed from the enclosure quite freely.Even at the stage of designing the house must take into account the fact that the single-layer wall thickness 400-650 mm of brick, small blocks of aerated concrete (or claydite) or clay tiles provide a relatively low level of thermal protection (approximately 3 times less than required).
high thermal insulation characteristics that meet modern requirements, possess the three-layer protecting designs.They consist of inner and outer walls of bricks or blocks between which is a layer of insulating material.The outer and inner walls interconnected by flexible links in the form of reinforcing rods or scaffolds laid in the horizontal masonry joints, makes the structure strength, and an inner (insulate) layer provides the required thermal protection parameters.The thickness of the insulation layer is selected depending on the climatic conditions and the type of insulation.
Due to the heterogeneity of the structure of a three-layer wall and the use of materials with different thermal protection and vapor barrier characteristics in the interior design can condense.The presence of the latter greatly reduces the insulating properties of the fence.Because of this, in the construction of three-layer walls of moisture protection must be provided.
house walls of brick and small blocks
sandwich erect stone walls can be of ordinary clay, silica and hollow bricks and ceramic stones, aggregate concrete blocks and cellular concrete blocks.In the role of insulation can act mineral wool boards based on basalt fiber, glass wool board or other insulating materials.The thickness of the insulation layer will depend on the wall material, its thickness and type of insulation.
is important to note the following.If the inner wall is built of aerated concrete, should not be used for the construction of the outer wall of lightweight aggregate blocks - it will lead to moisture insulation.Cinder blocks with high intensity absorb moisture and dry out slowly enough, so it is better not to use.Silicate brick can be used as building material for walls only with reliable horizontal waterproofing of the building.It is unacceptable to use for masonry plinth foundations and walls of rooms with high humidity (eg, baths, saunas).The outer and inner walls of the three-layer frame structures are connected by special ties.Generally, for these purposes, the pins of the valve diameter of not less than 6 mm, metal staples, as well as more modern communication of fiberglass.
Metal inserts are made of stainless steel or have a corrosion-resistant coating.Flexible connection stacked in masonry joints to a depth of 60-80 mm at a distance of 600 mm apart vertically and horizontally 500-1000 mm based linkages 0.6-1.2 cm by 1 m. In order to protect the building envelope by capillary moisturesoil moisture above ground 150-200 mm satisfied with horizontal waterproofing.For this purpose, the horizontal surface of the basement level the cement mortar, which is laid, and waterproofing material.From waterstops best to use moisture proof polyethylene membrane DPC company "Monarfleks" or traditional bituminous materials such as roofing, waterproofing, gidrostekloizol, bikroelast, IRMAST, Bikrost.
horizontal waterproofing is arranged on the entire thickness of the walls, with overlapping panels is 100 mm.to protect the insulation from moisture settles apron of waterproof material.If protruding above ground part of the strip foundation (base) wider than the outer wall, the projecting part of the cap to protect from moisture drain of galvanized steel.In homes with three-layered walls and slabs beams must be based on the inside of the fence, do not go at the same time in the thickness of the insulation and create paths for the penetration of cold.
Plus, the heat loss occurs through a portion of the outer wall, which is located behind the radiator.In this connection it is expedient to insulate the radiator from the gap space.The maximum effect will install in a niche insulation material covered with aluminum foil (shiny).In the cavity between the shiny surface of the foil and the heatsink provide an air gap of 25 mm in thickness.It happens that the width of the gap between the wall and the radiator is insufficient for installation of insulation - in this case it is possible to restrict the device to the inner surface of the radiator niche reflective screen, a foil or a vapor barrier material with a shiny surface.
For this approach, for example, a vapor material «Polykraft» Danish company "Monarfleks."«Polykraft» protect the insulation from moisture water vapor contained in the atmosphere of the room, and its shiny surface would be an obstacle to the flow of infrared radiation.The heater against a wall mounted directly on the floor is not recommended.There should be an air gap between the radiator and the wall is at least 25 mm between the appliance and the floor - 40 mm and 50 mm - between the top surface of the window sill and radiator.
frame-Shitov AND SCRAP LEREVYANNYE lumber
insulated material of wooden walls in the vast majority of cases are mineral wool boards on the basis of basalt fibers or plates of glass, stacked in the space between the uprights.Skeleton racks are mounted on the sill 600 mm.The outer side of the insulation should hide from the blowing wind roll vapor-permeable waterproofing material - it can be fiberglass or wall "Tyvek".On the inside of the heater must be protected from moisture steam insulating material - polyethylene film.Ideal - the use of foil vapor barrier material «Polykraft».Shiny aluminum foil layer not only prevents the penetration of water vapor in the heater, but also reflects a part of the inside space of the heat flux passing through the outside wall.The inner wall surface sheathe sheets of plasterboard, paneling, and so on. N.
In wooden houses, built of timber, logs, and frame houses horizontal waterproofing is done very carefully.For this purpose, between the base and the wall framing satisfied Waterproofing - membrane DPC, gidrostekloizol, bikroelast, roofing material.If the thickness of the cap is greater than the thickness of the wall, to remove moisture arrange drain of galvanized steel, which are laid on a wooden board, 25 mm thick.The board relies on the bars, which are stacked on top of the basement waterproofing in increments of 500-600 mm.
To prevent moisture insulation in the walls of the sandwich can arrange air layer thickness of 60 mm.To protect the insulation from blowing set windproof vapor permeable material - fiberglass wall or "Tyvek".It is also permissible to use ready for insulating boards, matting windscreen material.Ventilation air gap arrange special air holes in the bottom and top of the wall.The area of the ventilation openings is recommended to take a rate of 75 cm for every 20 meters of the wall.Organize holes can, using the hollow blocks laid on edge so that the air gap communicated with the outside air or not all vertical seams in the bottom row are filled masonry mortar.
recently adopted new regulations on heat saving in the reform of public utility to declare the principle of payment of thermal energy without subsidies.Just so thermal insulation of residential buildings is becoming today one of the major problems of construction.
All insulation materials are divided into several large groups:
- glass wool and glass fiber;
- gas-filled polymers - foams: polyurethane and polyurethane foam, polystyrene and expanded polystyrene, polyethylene, of phenolic foam, polyester;
- thermal insulation made from natural materials and products: cork, paper, peat blocks, and so on. N .;
- insulation on the basis of synthetic rubber;
- insulation from waste silicon production;
- insulated panels and structures;
- modified concrete: polystyrene, cellular concrete (aerated concrete).
Applications of various types of thermal insulation materials are shown in Table 1. Of course, it is best to build from materials that have a relatively high thermal insulation properties, for example, from foam concrete (Ktepl = 0.1-0.5 W / (mK), polystyrene foam (Ktepl = 0.07-0.08 W / (mK) blocks or blocks "Geokar" (Ktepl - coefficient of thermal conductivity).
Yet more often a problem of insulation brick cottage, whichOnly still under construction or already built homes for a long time. Of course, the most interesting are the high-performance insulating materials. These materials are usually related to the average density in the range 200 kg / m3 and Ktepl less than 0.06 W / m K). This kind of material is sufficientfast for 5-10 years of operation, payback, saving on energy costs. In Table 1, we can see the values of thermal conductivity of all the major to date and some thermal insulation materials.
First of all, are among the high-performance glass - and mineral materials, whose share in the production of insulation today is about 50%.Of the main advantages is worth noting fire safety, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, good sound-absorbing properties and low moisture absorption.It is well-known domestic production of wool, which, with all its flaws (it pours, inconvenient work) is still used mainly for exterior insulation of buildings or non-residential.Glass wool for insulation of residential premises can not be recommended, but if this has already been done - must be very careful to isolate it from the premises.
In today's construction market are well represented high-quality insulation materials made of fiberglass several foreign and domestic manufacturers.Such materials are somewhat more expensive, but it is, they is much easier, more convenient and safer to operate.First of all, mention should be made of the two largest manufacturers of thermal insulation materials.One of them - ISQVER OY (Finland) - a subsidiary of the largest glass manufacturer in the world - the concern SAINT XSOBAIN (France).ISOVER GY, besides all about that, and even the oldest company of its kind - produces glass wool since 1941, and is Finland's largest manufacturer of building thermal insulation (trade Markarovich ISOVER (r)), as well as acoustic (AKUSTO (r) materials. It is not surprisingwhat this company is one of the largest suppliers] thermal insulation materials in our country.
URSA (r) - a registered trademark of thermal insulation materials from staple fiber, which is produced in the factories concern; PFLEIDERER (Germany). On the Russian marketproducts with the world-famous brand URSA (r) is produced at the joint Russian-German enter prises ", Pfleiderer Chudovo».