There are three options for the location of the insulation.
1. With the inside of the wall.
Exterior finish the house completely preserved.
Ease of execution.Works are carried out in the warm and dry, and it can be done at any time of the year.
can resort to the most advanced technologies currently using a wide variety of materials.
In any case, the loss of usable area are inevitable.Thus, the higher the thermal conductivity of insulation, the greater the loss.
It is likely increasing humidity bearing structure.Through the insulation (usually vapor permeable material) water vapor pass freely, and then begin to accumulate or th
That is, if for some reason the only option will be the placement of insulation insulation from the inside, you will need to take tough enough positive measures to protect the walls from moisture - install a vapor barrier on the room side, an effective system of ventilation in the room.
2. Inside the walls (multilayer structures).
In this case the heater is placed on the outside of the wall and closes Brick (facing).Creation of such a multi-layer wall can be implemented quite successfully in new construction, but difficult to implement in existing buildings as it causes an increase in the thickness of the structure, which, as a rule, requires strengthening, so - just rework the foundation.
3. On the outside of the wall.
Outdoor insulation protects the wall from the alternating freezing and thawing temperature fluctuations it makes a neat array, which increases the longevity of the structure.
«Dew Point" or the condensation zone exiting vapor is carried into the insulation - outside the load-bearing wall.Used for this vapor-permeable insulating materials do not interfere with the evaporation of moisture from the wall to the outer space.This helps reduce moisture walls and increases the lifetime of the assembly.
outer insulation prevents heat flow from the load-bearing wall extend outwardly, thereby increasing the temperature of the bearing structure.The mass of the wall becomes insulated storage tank - contributes to a longer preservation of the heat inside the building in winter and cool - in the summer.
outer insulating layer must be protected from moisture as the atmospheric precipitation and from mechanical impact durable, but vapor-permeable coating.We have to organize the so-called ventilated facade or plaster.
so-called dew point falls inside the layer of insulation, which always leads to an increase in its moisture content.To avoid this, it will be possible, using heaters with high vapor permeability, through which the moisture getting inside as a layer, so from it and evaporate.
After weighing all the pros and cons of each of the three methods of placing a heater, it can be said that the outer insulation is definitely the most rational.
METHODS facade insulation
worth noting immediately that the building exterior insulation finishing it ceases to play only an aesthetic role.Now she must not only create a comfortable environment inside the building, but also to protect the supporting structure and reinforced her insulation from the effects of different kinds of weather conditions, but without loss of visual appeal.In this regard, it is impossible to talk only about the ways of warming of houses and materials used for this purpose - anyway, and would have to speak about parallel finish, since both the operation of each other simply inseparable.
The first is to consider wooden structures as it is for them the wall scheme "layer cake" obtained the most complex and they are the most susceptible to damage due to improper device.It is useful to consider the passing and the processes occurring in the insulated structure.
Insulation of wooden structures
This circuit includes components such as the inner lining (room side), pas roizolyatsiya wooden supporting structure, insulation, wind protection, ventilated air gap, the outer lining (from the street).If we want to understand what is required of each of these components, it is worth a closer look at those physical processes that occur in the insulated structure (see. Fig.).
On average, year-round operation of the building heating season lasts 5 months, three of which occur in the winter.So, 24 hours a day there is a steady temperature difference between the interior of (positive temperature zone) and street (minus temperature zone).And since the temperature difference is, then, in the wall structure has a certain thermal conductivity, heat flow is inevitably formed in the direction "of the heat in the cold."Simply put, wall extracts heat the room and takes him out.So, the main task of insulation - reduce the flow to a minimum.Currently, the use of heaters regulated requirements for thermal protection of protecting designs specified in the change to the number 3 * SNIP 3.11.79 "Building Heat Engineering", which entered into force in early 2000.
is important to know that the insulating material is effective until such time as it stays dry.For example, basalt insulation with a bulk moisture only 5% loses 15-20% of its thermal insulating properties.Thus, the greater its humidity, the losses become more significant.In fact, it ceases to be a heater insulation, and therefore the main question becomes: where does it takes the moisture?
always in the air in a given volume of water vapor contained.At 100% relative humidity and 20 ° C in 1 m3 of air may be contained 17.3 grams of water in vapor form.As the temperature decreases the ability of air to hold moisture decreases sharply, and at a temperature of 16 ° C in 1 m3 of air has water can contain no more than 13.6 g That is, the lower the temperature, the less moisture air can hold.If the temperature decreases, the actual water vapor content in the air exceeds the maximum permissible value for a given temperature, the "extra" couple immediately turn a drop of water.And this is the source of moisture insulation.
There is this whole process as follows.Relative humidity in the room is about 55-65%, which is much higher than outdoor air humidity, especially in winter.And since there is a difference value between the two volumes, it is inevitable there is a "flow" designed to balance these values - a warm steam first moves from indoors to outdoors through the thermal insulation of the structure.But because he has to move "from the heat in the cold" by the way, he will condense (turn into drops), moisturizing, thus insulating material.
But the organization of such a vapor barrier - is not only a necessary condition.The air, which is contained in a heater, warmed from the inside (carrier) wall, begin to move in the direction of the street.I must say that the simultaneous vapor-permeable insulating materials such movement will not interfere with, and as cooling air from him, too, can begin to condense.To avoid this, water vapor, reached the outer boundary of the insulating material must be provided unhindered opportunity to leave it until the condensation.Thus, the second condition for the normal operation of the insulated structure is the presence of well-organized airing - the creation of so-called ventilated gap between the outer skin and the layer of insulating material, as well as the conditions for the emergence of this gap, "thrust" (air flow).Just "Rod" and will remove the water vapors that come out of the heat-insulating material.
But these measures will not be enough.It is also necessary to isolate the insulating layer from the street, and if you do not, the insulating properties of the insulation may deteriorate.Firstly, due to atmospheric moisture (penetration of rain, snow, and so on. F.) May occur hydration layer of insulation.Secondly, because it is impossible to wind "blowing" low-density insulation, which is accompanied by heat release.Thirdly, under a constant stream of air in a ventilated gap may start destruction insulating material - the process of "blowing" insulation.
In order to preserve the characteristics of heat-shielding design on the surface of the insulation, which borders;with a ventilated gap windproof layer stack, wherein the damp-proofing and vapor-permeable material.
unacceptable to establish with the same side of the street a vapor ("breathed") material as the inner side (the so-called vapor barrier), since in this case the insulated structure would be isolated.The fact that the air in the sealed space moves too "hot and cold temperatures," but is unable to reach the side ventilated gap.With the advancement of air in the direction of the outer skin and the simultaneous cooling inside the insulator is an active condensation, which eventually gets frozen in the ice.As a result - insulating material loses much of its effectiveness.With the arrival of the warm season, the ice melts, and the whole structure will inevitably begin to rot.
Summarizing all the above, we can formulate the following basic condition for the success of the insulated wall construction: insulation should remain dry enough, regardless of the time of year and weather conditions.Through the implementation of this requirement enables the vapor barrier on the room side and from vetrobarera ventilated gap.
Of course, this is the most simple, but not the best scheme since its implementation are still so-called cold bridges (with a much smaller area than the insulation, heat resistance), which in this case are the boards lathing.A much more efficient in terms of heat engineering installation diagram in which the insulation layer is divided into two equal parts (say, with the necessary thickness of 100 mm, a two plate thickness 50 mm) and for placing each of the layers used on site lathing.In the latter case, the upper layer of sheathing boards perpendicular to the joists stuffed bottom.Of course, the creation of such structures - a time-consuming process, but there are practically no "cold bridges".At the end is close insulation layer wind insulation, securing it with vertical bars, and mount the same siding already on them (see. Fig.).
As mentioned, steam insulating materials are used in insulated wall constructions as "internal" protection of thermal insulation materials.Choosing one or another specific material, is usually guided by the principle: the higher the water vapor diffusion resistance of the material (Rn), the better.
sale steam insulating materials in rolls and can be mounted both horizontally and vertically on the inside of the building envelope against the thermal insulation.The connection to the bearing structure elements perform a mechanical stapler staples or galvanized nails with flat head.Note that the steam has a sufficiently high diffusion (permeation) capacity, and therefore the vapor barrier must be created as a continuous screen, and therefore it is imperative sealed seams.Above all, care must be taken so that the film remained consistent.
has long seam sealing is provided by means of connecting strips of butyl rubber, with both sides adhesive layers or by stacking "bands" vapor barrier material overlapped along the seam with fixing kontrbrusom.
When we are dealing with living spaces ceilings, penthouses and rooms with high humidity, it is required to provide a gap of 2-5 cm between the vapor barrier and the inner lining material, which should prevent it from moisture.
At the moment, the Russian market of building materials to create a vapor barrier provides a vapor barrier materials manufacturers such as: JUTA (Czech Republic) - Jutafol N / Al;TEGOLA (Italy) - Line Bar;ELTETE (Finland) - Re-Pap line 125, ICOPAL (Finland) - Ventitek, Ventitek Plus, Elbotek 350 White, Elbotek 350 Alu, Alupap 125, Elkatek 150, Elkatek 130;MONARFLEX (Denmark) - Polykraft and others.
breathable materials are used in wall structures (including the system of ventilated facades), performing the function of external protection of thermal insulation materials.The main task of these materials - not to let moisture and wind within a layer of insulation, while not hindering the exit of a water vapor.
choosing breathable materials, it is important to bear in mind that the resistance to water vapor transmission of the multilayer building envelope should be reduced in the direction of steam - "hot and cold temperatures."That is, the lower the resistance to water vapor transmission of the selected material (Rn), the lower the probability of condensation of water vapor inside the insulated structure.However, when following this principle, there is a risk to overdo it.Practice shows that the device of ventilated facades, vapor permeability of shelter materials within 150-300 g / (m2-day) is quite sufficient, and their price - a wave of adequate (about 0.5 in. E. / M2).