- Brand brick;
- brand solution;
- mutual arrangement of stones or bricks in the masonry;
- quality execution of the masonry.
number of bricks laid on the outside of the wall, known as the outer versts, and from the inside - inside of miles.Bricks laid between miles, are called back filling.
Depending on kak.ulozheny bricks miles, they can be a stretcher (on the surface of the bricks out side face - spoon) or tychkovymi (on the surface of the bricks out of the end face - poking).
respectively disposed in the outer bricks versta entire horizontal row brickwork called stretcher or binder.
multiple-row system dressings: 1 - bonder series;2-6 - stretcher ranks
presence of vertical restraints (building corners, openings) and offset rows of masonry require irregularities in brick: halves Thursday of, trehchetvertok.If
brick structure will be further grout, it performed vpustoshovku: it seams to a depth of 1.5 cm from the face
Single-row system dressings (chain): 1 - bonder series;2 - number of stretcher
To make the outer surface of a clear pattern of masonry and sealing solution in seams laying embroider.With a special tool (pointing) seams shaped roller fillet.
If the surface of the walls do not present elevated decorative requirements or suggest stoning, the masonry are vpodrezku: extruded out when laying bricks solution trimmed flush with the brickwork.
Bricks and stones are laid flat on the mortar bed, but sometimes (when the device cornice and corbels) on the face (stretcher) and upright (with masonry walls thin thickness 1/2 bricks).
Requirements for masonry
masonry walls and other structures made of brick must be performed in compliance with the rules of production and acceptance of work SniP 111-17-75, precise performance of which provides the desired strength of the constructed structures and high quality work.
During operation, should pay attention to the correctness of ligation and quality of masonry joints, vertical, horizontal, and the straightness of the surface, as well as the angles, the accuracy of installation fixings and connections, the quality of the masonry (Figure and grouting, the selection of brick with smooth edges and corners foroutdoor mile neoshtukaturi-Vai masonry).
Irrespective of bandaging bonder series must necessarily be laid at the lower (first) and upper (last) series of constructed structures.
Horizontal and vertical transverse seams masonry walls and all the joints in bridges, piers and columns (horizontal, vertical, transverse and longitudinal) must be filled with a solution.
layout brick wall
When the masonry vpustoshovku depth is not filled with a solution seams on the front side is allowed no more than 15 mm in the walls and no more than 10 mm (only in the vertical joints) in the column.
Terms cutting masonry
first rule requires that the bricks or stones in masonry arranged in rows (layers), perpendicular to the forces occurring in the process of laying.
second rule is that the vertical joints in brickwork should be parallel to its outer surface or perpendicular thereto.
third rule requires the cutting of masonry to the vertical plane of cutting of each row (layer) shift from the cutting planes of adjacent rows, resulting in over and under each row of masonry vertical seam is not seam and the stone or brick.
bricklaying: and - leveling solution;b - smearing solution on the brick.
When poor performance horizontal joints in the masonry there are bending and shear forces.Durability masonry thus considerably reduced.It is therefore important that the joints have a strictly defined thickness, and the density of the solution therein was uniform.
At break time masonry work, in order to ensure further safe bandaging the new with the old brickwork, masonry or restrict vertical ubezhnoy indent.The vertical indent often lay multiple rebar diameter of 8 mm.
indent called vertical and vertical groove running in cases where the masonry walls are separated from the brickwork.
Systems bandaging brickwork
certain order in which are located the individual bricks in masonry, called the system of dressing, or as is often said, ligation.The most common systems are dressing-row (chain), multi-row (pyatiryadnaya) and three-row.Apart from these, for laying individual buildings used types of decorative brickwork.
When the single-row system dressings bonder and spoon-tions alternate rows in each row of masonry.Vertical transverse joints overlap bricks overlying series of quarter bricks, and the longitudinal vertical seams - half brick.When crossing the walls
stretcher passed through the bonder series without breaking his dressings.
Along with simple and complete ligation joints, masonry-row has a number of drawbacks:
1. A large number of poking in verstovyh ranks and back filling small volume, which increases the complexity of the masonry.
2. Big flow with the brick masonry with facing.
Because of these drawbacks, single-row masonry wall of bricks are used very rarely.
When masonry walls made of ceramic stone cross slotted voids use chain bandaging required.
is often made of brick masonry perform a multilane ligation.It consists of one stretcher perpender and five rows.In this system, ligation, a deviation from the rules of the third cutting, longitudinal vertical seams overlap only in five rows of the binder method, which somewhat reduces the load-bearing capacity of masonry.The transverse vertical seams in four lozhkovyh spoons adjacent rows overlap in the number of half-brick, and the seams of the fifth series of the stretcher - butting the eponymous series of quarter bricks.
masonry perpender start with a number.Inner mile perpender number, if the thickness of the wall is an integer bricks spread butting, and at times half a brick - spoons.Back filling in all ranks, except for the first and second, perform spoons.In the next row of the binder stretcher with a thickness of the inner walls of a mile away, an integer multiple of bricks spread spoons, and at times half a brick - butting.Back filling in all cases carried out spoons.All of the following four series lozhkovyh spread from a brick with bandaging in a half-brick.
widespread multi-row system dressings due to its advantages over single-row:
1. Lower labor input.Back filling is easier to install than a mile outside.
2. Do not spent time on the workpiece trehchetvertok.
three-row system dressings necessarily apply when laying columns, pillars and piers.This system allows a coincidence of external vertical joints in three rows of masonry height.This clutch requires fewer irregularities in brick than single-row or five-row.Laying of columns and piers can not perform "basket", ie spread verstovye series of circuit only spoons.With such masonry verstovye not bound up with a series of back filling, as it turns out fragile masonry.
Laying back filling method vpoluprisyk a - butting;b - spoons;1-2 - sequence
process masonry consists of the following elements:
1. Installation poryadovok.
2. Adjustment and setting prichalku.
3. Submission of bricks or stones and moving layout on the wall.
4. shoveling, flow, leveling and spreading the solution on the wall.
5. Laying bricks in a mile and back filling.
6. Check the quality of the completed masonry.
7. Grouting of masonry (if necessary).
8. Felling and cutoff of bricks (if necessary).
poryadovkoy Fixing to masonry
poryadovkoy mounted vertically in the corners and at the intersection of walls, as well as 10-12 m in front of the works.Risks installed poryadovkoy must match the design elevation masonry joints.Installation poryadovkoy perform better together.
Thereafter poryadovkoy soft graphite pencil outline elevations of window and door openings.
prichalku pull in the clutch outer of a mile on each row, and the inside - through 3_4 series.Krepjat prichalku in poryadovkoy level scratches series.To attach prichalku laid out to use the bracket portion of masonry.Its sharp end is inserted into the joint, and to blunt rely on masonry, tied prichalku.That it does not sag under her enclose wedge a wooden block (brick lighthouse).Prichalku tensioned at the top face of the stacking brick row at a distance of 2-3 mm from the plane of the outside wall.
supply brick and its layout is as follows: take a stack of four bricks and laid on the inner wall of masonry for the exterior of a mile.For interior masonry brick mile layout is the same, but on the outside miles.
Installation apex prichalku a - mooring bracket;b - a permutation of staples;in - the prevention of sagging cord
solution is fed to the wall and level it with a shovel, a bucket.The solution was placed in a bed form an oval shape and a desired width.When laying vpustoshovku solution is spread by retreating from the edge of 2-3 cm, while laying under rasshivku - 1 cm. For a number of the stretcher bed of mortar 7-9 cm width make, and for perpender - 20-22 cm. The height of the beds - 2, 5-3 cm, length 70-80 cm. Under spoon spread a solution of the lateral edge of the bucket, shovel, and a bonder series - its front edge.When laying back filling solution throw into the trough formed by the rows of a mile, and is spread with the back of the bucket-shovel.For masonry pillars solution is fed into the middle column and spread with a trowel.Also, the solution is spread with a trowel when laying the interior walls with a large number of channels.
laying bricks on the solution verstovye rows can be performed in two ways: vprizhim and vprisyk.Masonry walls with the required filling of the vertical seams, and the pillars and columns perform vprizhim.Do it with a trowel.Smooth trowel solution, it scoops the edge part of the solution to the previously laid brick.At the same time with the other hand take a brick from the wall and placed it on the solution to the canvas clutching a trowel, which at this point is removed from the seam upwards.
Next, by clicking on the brick face down on his bed and level of prichalku to the previously laid brick.After laying the bricks with a trowel 4-5 trimmed excess solution squeezed from a horizontal seam on the face walls, and throw back to bed.
forms masonry joints: and - rectangular recessed;b - a rectangular vpodrezku;in - convex;r - concave;d - odnosreznaya;e - dvuhsreznaya
Bricklaying under rasshivku perform vprisyk.Leveling trowel solution free hand to take a brick wall and holding it obliquely to the surface of the masonry at a distance of 5-6 cm from the previously laid, rake face bricks spread out to form a solution of the vertical seam.Then moving up to the previously laid brick, upset him.Excess solution pruned trowel as masonry and vprizhim.
bricklaying to perform zabutovochnye ranks way vpoluprisyk, two bricks at once.Take to the right and the left hand on the brick, mortar is laid on the bed, prepared a mile between the rows, and face down to the level of a mile from the series.Vertical transverse seams thus must be filled with a solution.
correctness bookmark wall angle check a square and plumb, horizontal - level and rule.To do this, put on a level usually laid on masonry.
vertical surfaces and corners of the masonry is checked using the plumb.Check the horizontal and vertical masonry should be made at least twice per meter of its height.
laying seams, if provided by the project, embroider, first vertical seams, and then horizontal.Fancy initially produce a wider part of the tool, and then narrow.Thus the right hand forefinger must be on the back side of the working part of the tool.
the Bridge of bricks with the aim trehchetvertok pieces, halves, Thursday we needed to dressing seams in the masonry, perform hammer-kirochkoy.Using plotted notches on the handle of a hammer-kirochki, measure out the right amount of brick, and the blade point line stumps.Easily hit knurled on the verge of a stretcher, and then on the other.After this severe blow blade chop bricks on the marked line.
If you want to split along the brick, the first applied light strikes the blade hammer-kirochki on all four planes line stumps, and then a sharp blow split the brick.
Methods of cutting and Teskey brick: and - the length measuring system;b - stamped on the handle of a hammer;in - Check the length of the pieces of brick;g - putting line cutting;d - notching;e - cutting;Well - wrong way of cutting;z - cabin with a trowel;and --rubka on a spoon;to - Teska
Dismantling brickwork is performed by machines, but sometimes you can do on their own, though not without the help of a sledgehammer, crowbar and pickaxe.
disassembly are horizontal rows from the top down.Analyzing the clutch, to strive to get as much of the whole, unbroken bricks, because it can be useful for the construction of a new wall.
before closing up openings of the old masonry is cleaned of debris and washed with water.Termination is the same as a new masonry walls, with ligation of the old and the jointing or vpustoshovku.Especially carefully sealed top seam between the old and the new masonry.To do this, first zachekanivajut cement mortar over the gap back filling, and then over the bricks inside and outside of a mile.