In dry soils make pit the size of a cellar, as the construction will be carried out only on the inside.If the ground is wet, the dimensions of the pit dimensions of the cellar do more because the need to work with the outer surfaces of the walls.Pit digging with slopes, the slope of which is determined by the type of soil.
Ready pit must stand for some time in order to prevent water seepage.If it starts to accumulate water, the soil in this place tamponiruyut: dig to a depth of about 50 cm, lay crumpled greasy layers of clay, and then carefully tamped.
line the bottom of the pit and the ram, then it is placed a layer of mint clay 10-15 cm thick and covered with a layer of dry river sand of the same thickness.This is done when
If the soil is humid and the ground water are close to the surface of the earth, at the bottom of the pit first, put a layer of coarse sand, gravel or pebbles 10-15 cm thick, and a layer of fat mint clay.On top of laid concrete layer thickness of 5-10 cm, so that it completely blocked the clay preparation.After hardening of the concrete poured on him and put the hot bitumen roofing sheets or roofing material in two layers with overlapping joints at least 10 cm. Then again put concrete layer thickness of 10-15 cm. The foundation for the cellar can be made of rubble on concrete or gravel solutiondrizzled with a cement-sand mortar.The foundation, along with waterproofing should be 10-20 cm more than the external dimensions of each side of the cellar.
cellar walls can be made of various building materials, such as crushed stone, red brick, concrete, wood, asbestos cement sheets.The wall thickness of the concrete can be up to 15 cm, red-brick - 12 cm for laying in a half-brick and 25 cm for laying one brick from the rubble - up to 25 cm.
walls made of concrete with a wooden formwork, which is setvertically along the perimeter of the cellar.Formwork
edging boards made from 4-5 cm thick, tight-fitting, to leave no gaps through which can flow when laying concrete mortar.To formwork was even denser, for 2-3 hours before the beginning of works it is moistened with water.
for walling used concrete cellar of the brand and 50 100. In order to prepare a concrete mix, you need to take the necessary amount of bulk cement and sand and mix thoroughly together.Separately prepared crushed stone or gravel aggregate.Then, all mixed and shut water.Components for mixed concrete mass on a large wooden board.
concrete mix placed in layers of about 20 cm. Concrete thoroughly compacted with a steel rod, in order not to leave voids and cavities in the concrete mass.About a day can be laid to cover the concrete mix cement mortar layer about 1 cm thick, smooth and smooth down with a trowel.After another two days, poured concrete water 4-5 times a day and the fifth day - 2-3 times per day.Formwork removed a week after the placement of concrete.
Stone walls erected from rubble stone, rubble or ashlar.The most suitable material is crushed stone - gruboobrabotannye pieces of rock, such as limestone, dolomite, sandstone, granite.Crushed stone can be of different sizes: from 15 to 50 cm in diameter, the weight of 20-40 kg individual stones.For masonry must be chosen stones of the same size in each row.In addition, it should try to make the stones more correct form.It is necessary for the dense packing.
joints between the stones make as thin as possible, no more than 10-15 mm.When thin seams masonry settles less, and cement consumption is significantly reduced.
Before you start laying stones should be cleaned of dirt and moisten with water for better adhesion of cement mortar with a stone.
first laid out a series of "dry", ie without a solution to precisely match the required number of stones that are similar in size and shape.Stones picked up, turning them several times that they went as far as possible compact and smooth.
After fitting is completed, you can put stones on the solution.The stones of the first row must be properly compacted into the ground.The gaps between the stones are filled with cement mortar with crushed stone, the first solution is put, and then it utaplivajut rubble.
to brickwork was solid, it is necessary to do the dressing seams.This means that in each upper row the middle of each stone should overlap the seam of the bottom row.Best of all, when the seam is covered by half, but acceptable dressing seams by a third and a quarter.
Brick walls do likewise.Before applying the solution brick moistened with water for better grip with cement.If the walls do double, then the outside using a brick, but inside the walls lay a brick fight.Masonry is good because it can be easy to make the dressing seams, as the bricks have the same dimensions.
Masonry will soundly, if it fulfill the well-leveled base.To the walls were smooth, straight and horizontally, in the corners of the walls and tighten the set poryadovkoy thin cord.
In order to brickwork was better, it is recommended to put each row and dry on the inside and the outside of the wall.This so-called Milestone.Verst spread without mortar, but leave a gap between the bricks at the seams a width of 1 - 1.2 cm. Then pull a cord so that it does not reach the edge of the masonry of 1.2 cm while it will not budge vykladyvanii bricks.
If masonry are not a mile, then the wall through small distances (1-1.5 m) placed bollards bricks, mortar is applied to the part of the wall, level and put on the solution of the bricks.To fit bricks evenly on the surface easily tapped the handle of a trowel.Laying is conducted with obligatory ligation joints.
And one more note about the joints if the walls of the cellar is planned subsequently plastered, then make the masonry in pustoshovku.This means that the seam is not completely filled with the solution, the solution does not reach the plane of the wall to 1-1.2 cm.
Overlapping cellar can be made from various materials which are most accessible and structurally determined.The overlap can be made of wood.It is made as follows: first stack beams on which lay any timber (planks, beams, podtovarnikah, croaker, poles).Wood materials, it is desirable to cover the preservative.On top lay a hand available insulation material.You can grease the overlap otoschennoy clay, and after it dries, make the filling dry earth, expanded clay or slag.
thermal insulation shall be a minimum thickness of 30 cm. If the backfill used sawdust or peat, which are easily ignited, it should pour a layer of sand on top of dry ground or a minimum thickness of 2 cm.
overlap cellars can be arranged from standard concrete slabs.In this case, you need to pay attention to sealing joints.To do this, use the grout of 1: 2. The surface of the plate in two steps covered with a layer of hot asphalt, and on top put a sheet of roofing material.As a heater used slag wool.If
pogrebitsu build over cellar - the upper part of the cellar, which serves as additional protection against adverse cellars natural phenomena, it is also adhere to certain rules.For example, the door pogrebitsy better to do on the north side, so that it is less heated by the sun.The walls can be made of wood, brick, concrete, stone and so on. N .: importantly, that they do not freeze in the winter and less heat in the summer.The roof over the pogrebitsey are usually made of nonconductor materials.
The ceiling cellar provides the hatch, which is capped and insulate well.The cellar must be equipped with a ventilation system.In the cellars of the capital ventilation is carried out by two ventilation pipes - the exhaust, arranged at the top of the cellar, and fresh air, which is made in the lower part.The material for the manufacture of ventilation ducts can be pottery, boards, asbestos-cement, metal and so on.
works waterproofing cellars
good waterproofing - an indispensable condition for long-term maintenance and quality cellar storage.Waterproofing work does not take up so much time and money as take detection and correction of defects in the cellar, if you build it produced poorly.Also, sometimes it is very difficult to find the location and cause of defects and to figure out how to fix them with the least losses.
Protivonapornaya waterproofing: 1 - floor;2 - frame;3 - a wall made of bricks;4 - bituminous coating;5 - filling of cavities;b - the base of the concrete;7 - a layer of compacted rubble;8 - protivonapornaya waterproofing;9 - a protective wall;10 - cement plaster
Waterproofing measures are only effective when correctly chosen constructive solution cellars, apply high-quality insulation materials and construction works are carried out thoroughly and accurately, according to the rules of construction.
If the groundwater level above the bottom of the cellar, then arranged protivonapornaya waterproofing from the water pressure.Fig.an apparatus protivonapornoy waterproofing from the cellar.
Another phenomenon, the impact of which is necessary to provide and to prevent - is stagnant water.Stagnant water accumulates as a result of the penetration of atmospheric and meltwater to backfill the space between the walls of the pit and cellar (sinus) in the case where the cellar was built in the dense clay soils.They provide hydrostatic pressure to the walls of the cellar.
On ris.izobrazhena scheme of formation of stagnant water in the axils of the pit.
order to make the base and cellar walls with watertight calculation hydrostatic stagnant water, is used to waterproof concrete.In the case of conventional concrete or red brick must perform plastering walls with cement mortar composition: 1 part cement, 2 parts water.Plastering makes the two sides, and arrange on top of it pasted protivonapornuyu waterproofing.To do this, use any of the roll materials, such as roofing material or roofing felt.Its paste 3-4 layers and pressed against the protective wall which prevents roll back-lining material damage.
Form the stagnant waters:
1. - bituminous coating;
2. - brick wall;
3. - cement - sand plaster;4 - concrete preparation;5 - a natural ground;6 - the level of stagnant waters
protection stagnant waters:
1. - cement-sand plaster;2. - a brick wall;3. - pasted over waterproofing;4. - concrete preparation;5. - a layer of gravel;6. - Clay;7. - protective wall;8. - otmostka
between the protective wall which can be made of red brick and slope excavation further arrange a clay castle, which prevents direct contact with ground water rolled materials, thus prolonging the life of pasted waterproofing (Fig.).
If the building in the pit accumulated atmospheric or ground water, further work to carry out difficult or impossible without the adoption of measures for its drainage.
drainage from the pit water intake through a ditch, laid on the bottom of the pit, communicating with the pits - pit.Header is better positioned in the corner of the pit, bury it at 20-30 cm into the ground.Water accumulates in the drainage groove enters the pit, from where it is pumped by a pump or flinging buckets (Fig.).
If the pit dug in the sandy soils with deep groundwater occurrence, then drilled a small hole through which water will go down to the waterproof layers.
almost always outside the perimeter of the cellar makes the drainage groove to it does not drip of rain, snowmelt and surface water.
to protect the walls and foundations from the effects of the underground cellars (ground) water suit earthen castle.Clay Castle is a screen made of waterproof hard packed clay crumpled around the walls and bottom of the cellar.
Clay Castle and clay lubricant
Clay lock prevents direct contact with the lining hydraulic seals groundwater and this increases the service life of the roll, waterproofing materials.The basis for the castle clay is clay.To lock the device the clay is better to take a fat clay, wherein the admixture of sand is not more than 5-10%.To improve the plastic properties of the clay, it is soaked and held in this state for a long time, preventing it from drying.Lime added to the clay in a ratio of 1: 5 improves the quality of the clay lock.
To make a clay castle, you can use a mobile formwork.Clay stacked layers of 20-30 cm thick, each layer is carefully compacted.To a well-compacted clay, it should be natural moisture.Humidity clay is considered normal if a fist she did not crumble and does not flow through his fingers, and forms a dense clump.
clay lubricant used in the device of their ceilings for insulation and sealing.Clay grease can be prepared from any composition include clays.Before use, the clay is soaked for 2 ~ 3 days.Then, it is mixed with lime dough additives fibrous impurities and water.Sometimes water is added copper sulfate at the rate of 100 g per bucket of water.Overall, for the preparation of 1 m ;!clay lubricant requires 0.7 m3 of clay dough, 0.28 m3 of lime paste, 32 kg of a fibrous material, such as chaff or straw cutting 5-10 cm long and 200-220 liters of water.
main condition for waterproofing concrete is dense structure, which implies the absence of pore and voids.In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the ratio of cement and water.Water-cement ratio should be 70-80: 100%, so the mass of water, which is called the mixing water, refers to the weight of cement.In any case, the amount of water should be minimized, but the conditions of hydration (curing) must be favorable.
Regarding fillers, to obtain dense concrete, which is easily compacted, crushed stone or gravel amount should not exceed the quantity of sand than 2 times.The porosity and the ability to maintain a certain shape (stacked) of concrete is largely dependent on the ratio of grains of different diameters.Best performance is concrete, which uses sand with a grain diameter of 0.25 mm in an amount of 25% of its total mass, 1 mm diameter - 25% and a diameter of 3 mm - 50%.The placeholder for the waterproof concrete should be selected from non-porous, dense rocks.If you have a choice, then, for example, crushed granite, limestone is to be preferred.
In the manufacture of waterproof concrete
basic requirement of cement - and the lack of production of fresh lumps.
is recommended to sift cement through a metal sieve with mesh size of 1x1 mm to break up the lumps that may have formed during storage.Should strictly abide by the ratio of the components of the concrete mass, directly depends on its quality.Typically concrete quality is obtained when the ratio of the components - the cement, sand and gravel or crushed stone - 1: 1: 1 or 4: 1: 3.
Technology of preparation of the concrete next.Necessary material and timbering harvest in advance to be able to perform the masonry without interruption.
ready-mixed concrete in the box, the bottom of which is made of sheet steel.First, it poured the required amount of sand, then add cement and shovel in different directions to obtain a homogeneous mass.Then, the cement-sand mass shut water and thoroughly stirred.