First, we consider the construction of the buried cellars, ie cellars, which are completely underground.To build such cellars can be only in those places where the water table is at a great depth.
This type cellar has a very simple design, but, despite this, has excellent performance characteristics.In addition, construction of cellars requires minimal material costs to their facilities mainly use local materials.Fig.It shows a device earthen cellar.
earthen cellar can be built in if the water table is at a depth of at least 2-2.5 m, since the height of the cellar from the foundation to ceiling 1.8 m. If the groundwater is located slightly above the permissible and advisable to dopodsypku to lift the bottom of the cellar.
pit dug out so that the walls have a slight inclination - in this case they will be less crumble.
At the bottom of the pit is necessary to lay compacted gravel, impregnated with hot bitumen, a layer thickness of 5 cm, which will be the bas
earthen cellar: 1 - bins;2. - drainage ditch;3 - The ventilation pipe;4. - shelves;5. - adobe floor
walls of the pit is usually sheathe boards, slabs or fence, particularly in sandy soil, it is clear why.It is best to do a removable liner to the summer could dismantle it and dry it in the sun.This will prolong its service life, and consequently improve the quality of the stored product.
ceiling made of poles or podtovarnikah that glinosolomennoy top covered with grease and covered with earth for the purpose of insulation.The thickness of the ground plane of about 0.3-0.4 m. The roof gable doing, lowered to the ground so that the overhangs covered the pit at least 50 cm on all sides.The material for the roof can serve chiselled slabs, glinosoloma, twigs, reeds and any other local material.In case of severe frosts roof can insulate peat, dry leaves, and so on. E. The roof ridge, usually made from edging boards.Under the horse enclose strips of roofing felt or tar paper.
design of the cellar provided a ventilation pipe made from boards, closely fitted to each other.Inside the cellar equipped with bins and shelves.
Conveniently, the bins are placed on one side of the aisle, and shelf - on the other.
The bins do slatted floor for ventilation.The optimum height of the bins - 1m.The shelves are placed at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other in height.The final touch - drainage ditch around the cellar depth of about 50 cm, and the cellar is ready for use.
Cellar of asbestos sheets
This cellar can be built only in dry soils.It is made not only quadrangular but six-, eight- and decagonal.The construction of the cellar in just a few days.
Asbestos cement sheets or plates have standard sizes: 1200 X 900 X 10 mm, so the area of the cellar can be calculated based on the number of its sides.For example, hexagonal Cellar will have an area of 4.3 sq.m, an octagonal - 5.7 square meters.m, 7.8 sq decagonal.m.
Asbestos cement sheets can be joined together with metal corners measuring 40 X 40 mm (50 X 50 mm) or flat steel.
mount being screwed.Sheets cut out, saw a hacksaw.
Building cellars begin, as usual, with the excavation.After the excavation of earth ready to make the installation of the bottom row of asbestos cement slabs.They are interconnected by a corner on the nuts and bolts.The result is a closed structure having in plan view a polygon.
Cellar of asbestos-cement sheets: 1 - sheeting;2 - Area;3 - a bolt;4. - regiment;5. - cross;6. - sunroof
Ground cellar made of concrete.While not yet hardened concrete, asbestos cement walls assembled accurately and uniformly pressed into the concrete base floor to a depth of about 10 cm. Then leave for 5-7 days, so that the concrete has hardened and a lower tier of wall firmly established, after which the plate is attached to it nexttiers.The number and height of the plates depend on the selected depth of the cellar.The joints between the slabs will be overwritten with cement mortar.
If the earthen cellar floor, then the lower tier of asbestos cement slabs make the foundation around the perimeter of the cellar.Foundation depth of 30 cm, width - 40 cm. The outside walls are coated with a hot bitumen in two steps.Surfaces pre-sanded and primed.
overlap cellar also made of asbestos cement sheets: to the ends of the two opposite corners of the plate lying stacked two channel bars parallel to each other and the axis of the cellar through the middle of the opposing sheets.To u attach the sheets overlap.They should also be primed and covered with two layers of hot bitumen.
For better waterproofing is recommended to make a clay castle mint clay 15-25 cm thick. This must be done carefully so as not to damage the insulation of bitumen.
inlet is arranged in the form of a hatch in the ceiling cellar between two U-sections.It is made from double steel sheets 1.5-2 mm, and harness - from the angle steel.Between hatch cover put any known insulating material.Luke does not necessarily do with welding, it can be assembled on the bolt and nut.The size of the hatch 60 X 60 or 75 X 75 cm. Luke puts a metal or wooden stairs.
Ventilation is provided by two pipes.A higher output out a second set so as to be located 5-10 cm above the floor.Pipe diameter of about 10 cm. The lower pipe embedded metal mesh with fine mesh to prevent penetration into the cellar rodents.Inside the walls is covered with latex paint or lime mortar.On the inner perimeter of the cellar can make shelves on brackets of metal parts.They are incised and bent so as to obtain the desired shape.Furthermore, cellar can be divided into cells.Partitions will serve the same asbestos cement sheets.
If cellar under the house is not, and stands alone in the area, do a canopy over it for protection from the weather, and on the perimeter - blind area of clay or concrete.Blind area with a slope to the opposite side of the cellar at an angle of 2-5 °.
cellar pogrebitsey, or, as they say, with pogrebnitsey - time-proven construction, quite common in the individual building.It consists of two parts: the overground (pogrebitsa) and underground (own cellar).
Cellar recessed into the ground about 2 meters, so in the summer it is always cool, and in winter much warmer than outside.Besides pogrebitsa creates an additional screen from rain and exposure to low and high temperatures.Pogrebitsu usually used as an additional temporary storage for vegetables and as a storage room for garden equipment, lumber and so on. D.
Cellar is designed for long-term use, so its walls are constructed of durable materials such as reinforced concrete thickness of 20-30cm stone or brick (wall thickness 25-30 cm), thick slabs of 6-8 cm, diameter of 12-18 cm logs. All the materials are reliably isolated.Waterproofing method determined by the specific conditions of the construction site.
space between the walls of the cellar and the walls of the pit called bosom.This space is sacrificed clay, filling it with layers of 20-30 cm and compacted layers, that is, make a clay castle side.
If cellar built in the wet ground, then around the perimeter usually do pits - small holes to collect water depth of 20-30 cm. With the accumulation of water it needs to bail out of the pits.
cellar pogrebitsey: a - general view of the cellar;B - Plan cellar;a - section;1 - insulation;2 - whitewash;3 - blind area;4 - hot bitumen coating (2 mm);5 - a clay castle;6 - rubble concrete
Ground cellar make multilayer in two steps.The bottom of the excavation must be leveled and compacted tightly.On the thus-prepared bottom for drainage purposes sprinkled gravel layer 8-10 cm thick, which is laid on a layer of clay crumpled 2-3 cm thick. For this purpose, more suitable loam.The clay layer should also be leveled and compacted.Then make concrete pouring thickness of 10 cm. After the concrete has set firmly, and it will take 10-15 days to lay concrete preparation of cement-sand screed thickness of 5 cm and smooth down its steel trowel.Overlapping cellars make durable.For warming overlap is most commonly used concrete block, brick rubble (pre-sifted), you can use the moss.Insulation materials stacked on clay lubricant 3 cm thick. The cellar is equipped hatch size 70 x 70 cm. Under the hatch ladder set.Ladder for greater stability and ease of use is recommended to install at an angle.
pogrebitsy walls can be made of various materials.The most frequently used brick, shell, stone, slab oshkurenny about 5 cm thick, adobe and so forth. The roof gable pogrebitsy usually, lightweight.
To protect the walls from rain make wide overhangs.
The roof is made from solid plank sheathing covered with roofing felt or asbestos-cement sheets.
From the outside walls do pogrebitsy glinoschebenochnuyu blind area width of at least 1-1.2 m with a slope of 1:10.Wall deepened pogrebitsy 50-70 cm. The door to pogrebitsy made of thick tight-fitting boards with a minimum thickness of 4-5 cm.
A few more words about the ventilation.In order to create a favorable temperature and humidity conditions, in this cellar must be dual-channel ventilation pipe.Only in this case, you can expect efficient ventilation.
cellar in the garage saves land space, in addition, in urban areas it is almost unique opportunity to have a cellar.And if you also have a car, the cellar can accommodate a viewing hole.
depth of the cellar is usually 1.8-1.9 m. If the ground is wet and the ground water level is high enough, the walls of the cellar made of reinforced concrete high density and water resistance.In dry soils can be facilitated by the wall.For this purpose, suitable standard asbestos cement corrugated sheets of roofing slate, which are laid out in at least two layers and attached to a wooden frame with screws.This is done for the greater strength of the walls.Between the sheets are glued with mastic asphalt or cement-casein glue.
Waterproofing works lies in the fact that the building envelope, double-coated with hot bitumen.Surfaces previously primed.
Ventilation is provided by a vent pipe having two channel or device hatch, which in addition to the usual cover features a lattice through which air circulation takes place.
At especially low temperatures can be warm hatch, covered grill old quilt or something similar.
stone cellar - the most reliable and durable storage for a variety of agricultural products.Previously, these cellars were constructed in every peasant households, so they are sometimes called peasant.There are cases of exploitation of cellars over a hundred years without any major overhaul.That was the extent to which the development of art masters who built the cellar.Do not try and we build a stone cellar, which will serve more and our grandchildren?
best material for the construction of the stone cellar is a limestone - limestone, common in the Central Black Earth region, where it is cheap and available.It is placed on a clay solution that is added in a small amount of chaff and lime.The solution becomes so strong that not everyone can be a nail in it to drive.
guarantee durability stone cellar is a device it on a dry place, where the water does not reach the level of the floor at least 70 cm.
There is one important condition to be performed to achieve the desired result - to build only in the dry seasonyear to not get wet An open pit and has not been washed away by rain.On all sides of the walls and the foundation arrange a clay castle for waterproofing.The thickness of the clay lock 20-25 cm. The floor in the stone cellar with vtrambovannym make adobe rubble and shards or pieces of quarry stone size of from 2 to 8 cm.
overlap cellar do as a set.For masonry vault need a special wooden formwork with wheels.This formwork has a convex upward arched shape and is based on the whirling - specially carved planks long flight.
Body spread simultaneously from two sides of the edges to the center.The clutch must be an odd number of stones (bricks).In the center of the clutch completes the so-called keystone that riving set that provides the whole structure strength and reliability.The main thing in this business - the ability to calculate the design of the roof and lay the keystone.If you want to make the slope of the bricks under them you need to put a small flat stones.
Outside vaulted ceiling is filled with thick lime mortar, on top put a layer of clay lubricant 8 cm thick, then - wood ash coals with a thickness of 10 cm for thermal insulation, and on top of everything - clay or dry ground.To descend into the cellar stairs need to stone steps, but at the very least, of a durable timber.Besides the usual cellar with bunding land, you can do over the stone cellar pogrebitsu that deliver additional convenience for use.Pogrebitsu spread from the same limestone with clay mortar.Thus, it will reliably protect the cellar and will be an additional storage space for food and equipment.On all sides pogrebitsy satisfied shallow drainage grooves protect against accumulation and penetration of melt and rain water as well as a wide sandy or glinoschebnevuyu blind area.Modern stone cellar built on the same pattern, only the red material is burnt brick.Overlapping is made of slabs, insulation provides lubrication and clay layers on top of the ground.
Cellar brick: and - section;B - Plan cellar;1 - a wall;2 - concrete;3 - compacted gravel ground;4 - waterproofing layer
Ground cellars are built in if the water table is at a depth of less than 0.5 m from the ground.
name of this cellar speaks for itself.This cellar is attached to the capital wall of the house.Fig.It shows one of the variants of this cellar.
cellar walls are laid out from the red baked bricks, reinforced concrete or limestone.The wall thickness of 25 cm, i.e. in one brick.When used conventional masonry masonry cement-sand mortar.
walls on both sides of plaster cement mortar and the outer side of the hot further waterproofing bituminous paint in two layers.For devices earthy base line the floor, cleaned, and make concrete preparations thickness of 10-15 cm. After the concrete has set (about a week), arrange a cement floor thickness of 5 cm.
1. - vent;2. - roofing felt;3 - The wall of the house;4. - overlapping;5. - close;6 - compacted crushed stone;7 - blind area;8 - bituminous coating;9 - bunding;10 - brick wall cellar
To cover the cellar using a thick slab with chiselled edges.
top put a layer of mint clay and two layers of roofing material.Then make the embankment or dry peat land, which are seeded with grass.On all sides cellars do blind area and the drainage groove at a distance of 1 ~ 1.5 m. Potatoes and vegetables are stored in bins lattice that is raised above floor level by 10 cm. Nesypuchih products equipped with cellar shelves.
It can be said, a classic of the genre.