for midland and northern Russia is truly the best material.
Houses made of wood is lightweight.The foundation of the house to serve as an anchor, and as far as possible to reduce the load on the ground.
Depending on the soil type and the amount of the house should bury the foundation of a 50 - 90 cm.
In any case, the burial of the foundation you need to monitor not only in order to reach the depth of freezing, and that much more important to reachlow compressibility of soil, which can be safely move the weight of the building.The thickness of the foundation for such houses is usually no more than 40 cm.
Most often strip foundation is a concrete structure which has a perimeter of the future house.Construction of the foundation is to create a trench and filling it with concrete.It is possible in this trench, again the solution was set to large or small concrete foundation blocks.During the construction of such a foundation of great attention should be given to soil.Make judgments about the qualit
First, note access roads to your site.If the road is asphalt, then see how many cracks there are no failures.If the crack is, then the soil is non-uniform and, upon freezing, in different places rises unevenly.The failures show the presence of highly compressible places - it may be water veins, and, again, a significant unevenness of the soil composition.
Second, go to the nearest neighbors.Let show their cellars.Look, whether they are raw.Pay attention to the long-standing construction.Then another of the waterproofing and dreamed.The ideal option, you know, is completely dry cellar and basement with no cracks.This, however, is very rare.Usually you will see varying degrees of dampness - from becoming soaked walls and floor-to-total flooding the basement.Avoid places where homes located in flood zone floods.Build a house in a place like this, you run the risk that the spring would float, not only your precious possessions, and waste products of your and your neighbors.Hard to even imagine that trouble.
In short, do not build homes in the troubled places.You will likely be very difficult to live there.If for some reason there is no alternative, I would say that the strip foundations in the swamp or flooded soil is better not to do.
Now, suppose you went to the neighbors, look at their cellar, and nothing particularly shocking not seen.In this case, you can start digging trenches on their own site.Let me remind you that we are talking about the construction of a light house.So ... we dig a trench.Carefully look at the resulting slice land.I am in my life witnessed the construction of the house at a very reasonable, seemed soil.Imagine a very light sandy loam.This light, which clod, a fist, does not retain shape and crumble.
In addition, very low level of groundwater - more than 10 meters.When digging a pit, drew attention to the fact that in the bulk soil to the depth of the foundation of the future there are streaks, consisting of a large number of small pebbles.Do not pay attention to these veins were hard - too hard to dig, shovel buries in compacted stones.The owner was very pleased with their soil.Indeed, everything points to the fact that in the basement will be very dry.In the spring we got a surprise.
Melt water soaking into the ground, falls into these veins do not absorb further.It flowed through veins like the hoses, by choosing the path of least resistance.Where flowed?Exactly!Right in the basement.That's how interesting happened.The basement became a collector of water with a good half of the site.With the half which was higher.We are, however, common efforts found a fairly simple and effective way out of the situation, but about it later in the same topic.
return to the discussion sections of land.So the ideal cut will be the next.First, a light non-greasy layer of fertile 15-20 cm thick. Next sandy loam.Then sand and finally a layer of pebbles rolling in the first aquifer.This is somewhere in the three meters from the surface, not less.Remember that the layer of clay is always an obstacle for water and, hence, water will flow through it and.
The soil in your trench closer to the ideal, which I described above, may lie the smaller foundations.The more your clay soil and water, the greater must be the foundation.There is another consideration to be borne in mind when digging trenches: on how easy it delves depth.The easier it is dug, the more likely may be foundation settlement under its own weight and the weight of the structure.When a viscous, highly compressible soil should increase the total area of the basement and deeper layers to the low compressibility.
In the professional building, for the purpose of increasing the area of support are the foundation of the so-called pillow.This is a fairly massive concrete structure which in cross section are trapezoid.On the upper base of the trapezoid set the foundation.When constructing strip foundation is possible to construct it so that the outer vertical side it will have an inclined inner side, expanding the base.This method allows to increase the area of the basement and lower load on the ground.
on very greasy soils can recommend filling bottom of the trench a significant layer of a mixture of sand and gravel, followed by compaction.You can actually take all sorts of steps to strengthen the foundation.You can invent and a lot of their own methods.It is only necessary to understand the main principle - to prevent sediment finished house, its offset and slope.
When building the foundation necessary to pay attention to another very important aspect of its reliability.It is associated with seasonal swelling of the soil.According to my observations, the soil swells in the winter always in any soil.I certainly do not take sections on permafrost or a solid slab of stone.It is necessary that swelling was similar throughout the foundation, that is, to the foundation in the winter with the house rose evenly and uniformly in the winter down to the foundation or the house was not raised at all.When analyzing this side of the foundation should be borne in mind that the dry soil swells less than the wet.Clay soil swells more than the sand.
presence of inclusions in the clay sandy soil will not only unevenness of seasonal swelling, but also to the emergence of horizontal forces acting on the foundation.If you are worried about the uneven seasonal swelling of your soil, bury the foundation below the freezing depth.The question of the depth of freezing is also quite complex.I do not know about you, but we have, in the suburbs, the freezing depth of 50 to 120 cm. You may ask why such a spread.I will answer.The denser the soil, and the winter is severe, the soil freezes more.The soil is saturated with moisture, freeze is stronger than dry.The soil under the snow freezes is not so much as naked.
Naturally, the land on the mountain with which the wind blows away all the snow in the winter, chilled deeper than the land in the forest.There is one method to reduce the depth of soil freezing.It is very effective and relatively cheap.I myself use it.It consists in the installation of foam or polystyrene foam plates with a thickness of not more than 5 cm below the blind area of the basement.I did not make the experience, but I believe that in this way I reduced the depth of freezing centimeters to 30. Incidentally, the same method will help if you freeze, laid underground water pipes.Just bury the same plate in the ground above the pipe.
There is another option under the tab strip foundation (note) wooden house.Some categories builders can save it.It consists in making the shallow concrete foundation.This refers to the knitting reinforcement and pouring all that concrete.What's the point?And that, when blistering under some angle foundation it will not crack and will move up and stand and their weight and the weight of the house built on it.Note, moreover, that the angle of the foundation will rise, it will keep the plane, and thus the house is not deformed, the walls and ceiling will not crack if they are, for example, plastered.We save on excavation.Spending on metal and concrete, which must be of high quality (both floors).Profitable or not - you decide.It is important that the house is wooden, and therefore easy and load on the foundation is not very serious.
By the way, my personal experience is that you can make a solid foundation and without metal.The absence of metal should be compensated for the massiveness of the cast structure.Understand it as you wish.To determine the massive use intuition or something else.
Next I would like to mention the issue of the construction of strip foundation under the stone and very large houses.The principles remain the same.Beware do fine on dubious foundations, in terms of freezing soils.The thickness of the walls of the foundation may not be less than the thickness of the walls of the future house.Be sure to lay the foundation for the walls that keep overlapping.This will increase the total area of the basement and ease the load on the ground.In fact, for developers, it may be worthwhile in the construction of the foundation to build a brick house with a ground floor.The difference in cost is small, and the gain on the additional area is truly enormous.The ground floor under the house made of wood, too, will give great benefits and amenities, but it will increase the ratio of the value of the foundation to the value of the house as a whole.