Fox is due to unknown reasons to build a house made of ice (not taken into account the climatic characteristics of the area).Of course, the snow melted, the needle with the arrival of spring, and the house, woven from plant fibers, somehow survived until the summer.But how durable bast proved shelter and the building in general is fraught with winter?This tale is silent, but we will try to find out: is it possible to build in the winter, and most importantly - whether you want to do this?
Features "under the snow" construction
believed that winter construction has several advantages compared to the summer.First, the foundation loaded weight at home, in the spring will be less susceptible to soils.Consequently, this will help to avoid distortions in the building design.Secondly, (this regard, however, only wooden structures) during operation of the cold water comes from the freezing timber, which gives a more uniform shrinkage of the house.Therefore, do not have to wait another year and a half be
big plus winter construction - wood in the spruce and pine in sub-zero temperatures is not formed blue, arising as a result of a fungal infection.In winter, wood parasites and fungi do not live - little moisture and too cold.Summer is the forest - more juicy, moist, to the maximum extent exposed to shock, so the summer is recommended to immediately handle the construction antiseptics.Third, when the winter construction is less susceptible to undesirable changes in the section itself, as construction equipment does not break in the cold soils.
Some experts believe that in the winter you can build, because in our time there and well-proven special additives that allow to conduct concrete and masonry work at low temperatures.Methods winter construction technology has long worked.Houses constructed in the winter, and low-and high-rise - stand for decades.However
build winter longer and more expensive because:
- short daylight hours, and freeze workers get tired faster.Since people have a hard long in the cold, time is reduced to a few hours.In addition, it requires frequent breaks to rest and bask.
- Preparation of the solution with antifreeze additives requires strict control of the proportion of their favorites, or the quality of the masonry will be unpredictable.
- If the temperature is too low (below 25 ° C), for working with wood is largely complicated work sawing elements - the tree just crack.
- the winter is difficult to make the examination of the soil.Complicated and, accordingly, increase in value, the process of laying the foundation.
«Behavior" materials in the cold
Wood and brick
Since the construction of a wooden house does not imply the use of connecting solutions and moss or oakum behave the same at high and at low temperatures, no featureswinter construction here did not exist.Another thing - a brick or stone.
«weak points" in the construction of the house in the winter of these materials - joint compounds.However, due to special additives modern concrete mixtures provide a set of necessary durability when working at low temperatures.Manage properties of concrete using special chemical additives.Their use can significantly (up 20%) to save the cement - the most important and rather expensive component of concrete.As a balanced multi-component complex, this product allows you to masonry work even at an ambient temperature of 0 to -15 ° C.
In addition, to accelerate the pace of construction of the winter allow modern materials, for example,
expanded clay-concrete blocks - they are made of foam and baked clay and cement, and aerated concrete - almost universal material that is produced as a result of swelling of the cement test special pore-forming additives.It is not flammable, and prevents the spread of fire, has good thermal insulation characteristics.The porous structure of cellular concrete gives lightness.
If time permits, and there is no need to "pass the five-year plan in four years", the construction of the winter period, you can simply preserve.
How to buy materials
All construction materials should be stored so that they are not subjected to wetting, decay and destruction.Lumber and logs Rounded logs are stacked on the pad that lets you use a gap to accelerate their drying.In this top they must be covered any waterproof cloth.
roofing material, roofing, tile, slate and other roofing materials should be stored in a closed room - utility rooms and barns, in the same dry and well spend the winter nails, glass and metal parts.
important to remember to roll roofing materials (roofing, roofing material) certainly kept in an upright position, and paint and linseed oil - in a sealed container, do not let them dry out.
Cement and lime should be stored on the floor in a dry place at a height of about half a meter from the ground.There is unacceptable as a direct dripping water and a significant increase in air humidity.It is better if the cement, gypsum, alabaster not be left "for the winter."
Brick (any) stored in stacks, preventing it from entering the upper layers of snow and moisture.Sand, gravel and crushed stone piles stored, protected from contamination film or sheeting, encircled with formwork that saves the Loose materials on the spread and the loss of their total mass.
In all cases, you should pay attention to the terms and conditions of storage of materials specified on their labels and accompanying instructions.
If the work completed construction of a basement foundation, then the inside of the cap, "insulated" or slag sand (not clay).Clay Castle should be done from the outside.
top cap is aligned with cement mortar and hiding a layer of roofing material with an overlap, pressed down "oppression."This layer is not, of course, the future waterproofing.This is just an element of conservation.
Underground house under construction until the spring should remain dry and clean.For this ground it is leveled, compacted, filled with sand or gravel (a layer of not less than 12 cm) and is filled with lime or cement mortar.
If this season you have managed to build only the walls, then just leave this well before winter is not necessary.We must build and roof.At the same time all the cracks, windows and doors must be slaughtered, that will protect the house from the attic and entering into the interior volume of the building of a strong wind, snow, water, and unwanted visitors.
to filling attic floor did not wake up, reel slots should be smeared with clay.If there is an intention to use sawdust as insulation, they should be pre-mixed with lime and clay-Pushenko and then fall asleep a slag layer in the 3-4 cm layer.
Regardless of the degree of readiness of the building already in the winter need to make a "blind area".It is made of a fatty layer of clay 15-20 cm or concrete with a minimum width of 1 meter.Its purpose - to withdraw from the house dripping from the roof (and thawed) water.
OPINION Construction Experts
preparatory stage - examination of the site and laying the foundation - yet sensible and easier to do in the warm season, even in autumn.But as for the erection of walls, roofs, painting and decorating - there is no particular difference, you can build in the winter, only the process, due to objective reasons, will go more slowly than in the summer.Common foundation laid in the winter, must settle for a long time, and in the spring he can still give a precipitate.As a consequence, the walls may crack.
However, in the range of builders now have a new technology - "floating foundation", allowing greatly simplify the first phase of construction.Some believe this foundation expensive: when tab spent a lot of concrete and reinforcement.But in fact, he has lots of advantages, and ultimately its use reduces construction costs.
floating foundation is a monolithic slab, can be put on any stage - even in the marshland.Therefore soil examination carried out is not necessary.Mandatory subbase for monolithic slab is sand.Builders take off the ground, poured sand pillow, do waterproofing, reinforced mesh knit, make the formwork and pour concrete slab 40 cm high, which can easily withstand the four-storey house.Cellar in this project is not - then removed the problem with flooding, woodlice, fungi, carrying waterproofing and ventilation, as well as - corrosion traditional foundation.
the money saved can be separately to build a shed, a garage or a bathhouse, or - a gym - all that is usually located in the basement.Why is this called a floating foundation?Because in case of change of temperature or seasonal movements of soil, this monolithic plate can be tilted.If it is frozen on the one hand - it pops up.To the house is not cracked, between the first and second floor of the intermediate floor is poured reinforced belt.It's not expensive, but very effective.25 cm concrete belt give additional strength to the house and allow him to "walk" and move on uneven ground.Lying on the surface of the concrete slab, of course, is frozen.Therefore, it is recommended to do in the house heated floors