choice of location for the construction of the cellar
So you've decided to build a cellar.Where to begin?Of course, the choice of the place most suitable for this purpose.In terms of ease of use can make a cellar under the existing structure: the house, garage, shed, etc... In recent years these cellars are building more often than stand alone, because it saves space and land for construction material costs.But if the space on the plot enough you can build a d
Before you begin construction, you need to have accurate information about the level of groundwater, about the properties of the soil and the depth of its freezing in place of the proposed construction.From this will depend on the design and method of waterproofing the cellar, and in the end - his performance properties: longevity and quality of food storage.
best to build a cellar for dry or elevated place on a steep slope, as this will greatly ease the problem of waterproofing.But quite often the terrain does not correspond to the desired best option.
In any case, remember that the ground water level should be below the level of the floor (bottom) cellar for at least 0.5 m. The level of groundwater depends on how you can bury cellar.For example, if the water table is at a depth of 2.5 m below the surface, the cellar can be recessed full height (2 m), that is, to build an underground cellar.If the water table is at a depth of less than 2.5 m from the surface, built semi-underground cellar.
ground cellar in the building when the water table is at a depth of 0.5 meters from the ground.In low-lying areas with very wet soil make artificial sand and gravel "cushion" to lift the bottom of the cellar above the water table.
include groundwater released this type is perched.During construction it is essential, as is perched temporary, usually dependent on seasonal water penetration of various origins.Perched formed within the vadose zone due to accumulation of infiltration water on relatively small lenses impermeable rocks.Scheme of groundwater is shown in Fig.1.
Fig.1 Scheme of groundwater
shallow groundwater can be determined visually with sufficient reliability.This is evidenced by the bright luscious vegetation, a large number of mosquitoes and black flies.In such places are growing moisture-loving plants - horse sorrel, forget-me, horsetail, mother and stepmother, bog plants - sedge, bulrush.Nearby, as a rule, there are natural or artificial reservoirs.The ground water level is recommended to determine at the time when it is highest in spring and autumn during the rains.With aneroid can determine the level of the aquifer in the well if it is far away from the construction site.To do this, first remove the barometer near the well, and then to the site of the proposed construction of the cellar.The difference in the readings will indicate the depth of the water table.For example, the barometer at the well 742.7, and the future site of the cellar - 742.4.This means that the underground water table is at a depth of 3 m, as the price of one division of the barometer (0.1 mm) corresponds to a change in the depth (height) by 1 m. If there is no nearby wells produce exploratory drilling or digging pits.Drilling of exploratory wells is carried out excavation.In soft ground for drilling using a drill yard (Fig. 2).If the soil tight, use a manual drill-coil (Fig. 3), which can be made from the end of its century of automotive springs and drilling spoon (Fig. 4) made of a piece of pipe with a diameter of 60-80 mm.Drilling is carried out to a depth of 2-2.5 m. The drill is removed from the hole every 0.5 meters and examined soil samples.
dig pits in the case where there is no way to drill a well.This is somewhat more time-consuming method, as is necessary to shovel digging deep narrow hole in the form of a slot (hole).
If exploration work can be found quicksand.Quicksand - a cohesive soil saturated with water.Usually, it is a fine sand or sandy loam, in rare cases - loam.Quicksand is not amenable to drainage, cellar building on this site is not possible.
addition to information about the level of groundwater, before construction of the cellar should determine the type of soil, because it affects the choice of materials for construction.Consider the main types of soils and their properties.
The texture of the particles released some of the most common types of soil: sandy, clayey, loamy and sandy, depending on the ratio of clay and sand components.Clayey considered particles having sizes less than 0.01 mm, sand - more than 0.01 mm.In addition, merit this kind of soil as peat.
nature of the soil can be determined in the agrochemical laboratory, but there are simple and fairly reliable way to find out the texture of their own: a lump of wet soil to try to roll out the power cord, and then roll it into a ring.If the ground is not rolled into the cord, you can be sure that it is sand;If the cord is obtained rudimentary, the sandy loam soil;If the cord is obtained, but in the ring does not clot, breaks - is light loam;If the resulting solid cord ring, but the ring gives the cracks - it is heavy loam;If the cord and solid ring - clay soil.
depth of soil freezing
information about the depth of soil freezing can be obtained from the district architect or the engineering department of the administration.This information is important, as most types of soil (wet loam, clay and sandy loam) in winter freeze at low temperatures, increasing in volume and 10%.This leads to deformation of engineering structures.
It should be remembered that the same negative temperature snowless winters ground freezes more than in the winter with lots of rainfall.
In addition, the greater the depth, the lower soil temperature varies depending on the outdoor temperature.For example, at a depth of 3 m soil temperature it remains practically unchanged during the year and is about 4-10 ° C.This provides a favorable microclimate conditions in the fully submerged cellar.
Fig.5 shows a graph of the temperature of the soil depth.
Selection of materials for the construction
Once we decided on the location for the construction of our cellars, it should engage in preparation of building materials.Building materials are divided into natural (local) and the artificial, industrially produced.Most often in the construction of cellars materials used.
Clay - a natural material, which is a basic property of plasticity.Low plasticity clay dries quickly and crack when dry.They do not have good water resistance, [rib clay well hold water very slowly gasp contain up to 12-18% of water, which in normal conditions is not completely removed.
plastic clay used in the construction of cellars as a waterproofing layer, the device locks clay.Waterproofing gasket thickness can reach 25 cm. Its stacked layers of 8-10 cm, which must be properly compacted.The clay used for waterproofing and preparing solutions.
as artificial building materials used binders, which are divided into four main groups:
1. Inorganic or mineral - cement, lime, gypsum, water glass, etc. D.
2. Organic - tar, bitumenemulsions and pastes them.
3. Polymer - thermoset and thermoplastic malls.
4. Complex - combined, mixed, compounded.
inorganic binders are powdered materials, manufactured industrially from different rocks (gypsum, anhydrite, limestone, dolomite, clays, nepheline, bauxite, quartz sand, marl) and by industrial products (blast and open-hearth ash and slag, etc.. d.).
inorganic binders when mixed with water to form a plastic mass, which over time as a result of physical and chemical processes solidifies, turning into stone.
Roofing roll materials are often used to cover the cellars, as they are less heat in the summer.In addition to roll material used to cover the cellars solid roofing: roofing steel, asbestos cement sheets, and others. But in this case necessarily insulated crate under the roof to the cellar does not overheat in summer and does not freeze in winter.And best of all to cover the cellar turf, as it is an excellent natural insulator.
Wood is often used in the construction of cellars in the form of round wood and lumber.From round wood materials most often used podtovarnikah - logs with a diameter of 8-12 cm, the pole - diameter of 3-7 cm, rarely logs with a diameter of 14 cm or more.
Lumber obtained by longitudinal sawing logs into pieces and their longitudinal and transverse cutting.Lumber vary in cross-sectional shape.This board beams, slabs, quarters, plates, bars, and others. For all types of work it is recommended to use planed boards, since they have a longer service life.
for construction of wooden structures usually use softwood, mainly because they are most common and have good physical and mechanical properties.
The main physical properties include wood moisture content, density, hygroscopicity, thermal conductivity.The good quality of wood is its low thermal conductivity, which is widely used in the construction of walling and ceiling cellars.
Stone materials of natural origin produced by machining (grinding, chopping, Tesco, etc.) Various rocks.One the most common in the construction of cellars stone material is crushed stone.Crushed stone used in the form of pieces of irregular shape and irregular plates.He is torn, postelisty and limestone obtained from layered rocks.Its size from 15 to 50 cm in diameter, the weight of 20-40 kg.Brick - artificial ceramic material which is prepared from clay mass by its shaping, drying and subsequent calcination.
for the construction of cellars must take ordinary red burnt brick.Well suited for this purpose burnt through brick, iron ore to surface melting.This brick is very long.Unburned brick scarlet color for walls cellar necessary, as in wet conditions he bystpo destroyed.
Granular materials are natural and artificial.They can be used independently or as fillings and toppings.This sand, gravel, expanded clay, sawdust.
solution is used when the stone and brickwork to bind stones together, for plastering walls and cellars.According to the composition secrete cement, clay, lime, lime-cement and lime-cement mortar.According to the degree of plasticity solutions are fatty (vysokoplastichnye), normal (middle) and skinny (maloplastichnyh).Solutions filler usually is sand.Peaceful solution contains small aggregate, due to which cracks when dry.The normal solution is not crack, but the pass water.The lean solution is also watertight, besides easily broken, because it contains a lot of filler.In the lean solution to perform the masonry is not recommended.