Technology home insulation

By Admin | Building
24 May 2016
was a comparative analysis of thermal insulation of a two-storey house set on old and modern standards of thermal performance.The house has an attic, the total area of ​​the building is 205 sq.m.According to estimates, initially power heating system of 30 kW.After the work on the house warming for optimal thermal protection requires no more than 15 kW.

consider possible options for the location of insulation, noting the advantages and disadvantages of each type.

1. The heater is installed on the inside wall

Thermal insulation work performed indoors, allowing you to warm the house at any time of year, regardless of the weather.In addition, the exterior finish remains intact, you can use any type of material and to apply the latest technology provided for the interior spaces.

The main disadvantages of this technology include the loss of usable area, the higher the thermal conductivity of the selected material, the greater the loss.

Insulation of internal walls can lead to increased level
s of humidity of walls: water vapor pass through the insulation, but are unable to get out, accumulating directly to the wall or between the insulation and the wall surface.

If the thermal insulation system was chosen method of internal insulation is necessary to protect the walls from moisture and its negative impact.For this purpose, the room ventilation system creates effective and the inner side heat insulating system - steam.

2. Insulation is installed inside the wall

placement of insulation in the walls is a laborious process and it is recommended to determine if new construction.The fact that in this type of insulation heater mounted on the outer side of the wall, cover layer of bricks.To make installation of a thermal insulation on an existing wall, it is necessary to increase the thickness of the whole structure by strengthening the foundation.

3. Insulation is installed on the outside wall

main advantages of external insulation:

• The wall becomes stable protection against temperature changes, and due to these fluctuations, freezing and thawing of the wall.
• Condensation zone exiting vapor is driven out of the bearing wall - the so-called "dew point" is located in a heater.By using modern heat insulating materials, nothing prevents moisture converted to steam and out into the external space, which significantly lowers the moisture level of the wall.
• The heat is retained in the retaining wall and turns it into a kind of heat storage - design retains heat in winter and in summer - cool delays.

With all the merits, the outer insulation needs to be protected from external mechanical and weathering special coating has high strength and water vapor permeability.To this end, the outer wall plaster or set "ventilated facade".To prevent an increase in the level of humidity in the insulation material should be used with high vapor permeability, so the moisture entering the inside layer can freely evaporate.

If we compare the above methods of placement of insulation, it is safe to note that the installation of the external thermal insulation is the most effective and rational.

insulation of facades

The façade bears two main functions - aesthetic and protective, it is not possible to talk about each of these factors separately.Attractive appearance of the building, of course, is important, but more important to create comfort and conditions optimal for living, indoors.Therefore, the purpose of competent facade decoration - home insulation, protection from atmospheric phenomena and visual appeal.

Wooden structures

most complex wooden construction is considered, as they are very sensitive to the wrong device, so that may be destroyed.Depending on the type of building, use certain technology insulation and finishing materials.

thermal insulation

Among all existing building materials, wood is the most traditional and environmentally friendly and is used for the construction of chopped and frame houses.Despite all the advantages of wood, it has no heat insulating properties to a sufficient extent, moreover, it is too sensitive to moisture, is sensitive to the processes of putrefaction, mildew and various diseases.For insulation constructions of wood recommended external insulation, which is a screen with a protective and decorative functions, venting properties while providing a gap between the outer shell and insulation.

This system consists of the following components:
• Wooden bearing structure
• Inner lining
• vapor barrier
• Undersuit
• Windscreens
• vented air gap
• external cladding

insulation materials - using

During heatingseason you can watch the temperature difference between the inside and outside spaces.In the wall structure is formed of heat flow, which moves in the direction "from the heat in the cold."The wall has a certain thermal conductivity and, absorbing heat from the room, it gives the street.To prevent heat loss, you should insulate the walls of thermal insulation materials, the use of which adjusts the position of the thermal protection requirements for structures under the number 3 to the SNIP 3.11.79 "Building Heat Engineering".Changes to the document were put in place in early 2000.

What are the requirements for thermal insulation material?

the basic requirements for thermal insulation materials - the ability to prevent the leakage of large amounts of heat from the heated space, with maximum efficiency can be achieved only if the insulation remains dry.As soon as the insulation material increases the level of moisture, increases heat loss in the space of the street.To return to a heater insulating properties, it is necessary to find out the cause of its moisture, and to find possible ways to solve this problem.

Where does the moisture?

water vapor content in the air is about 17.3 grams of water per 1 m3 at a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius.In cold weather, the indoor air has a moisture content of 55-65%, and this figure is significantly different from the humidity outside.With decreasing temperature, the air loses its ability to retain moisture, and excess steam begins to transform into the water.The warm air begins to move in the direction of the street space in the room.Water droplets penetrate the insulation material and hydrate it.

prevent the conversion of heat flow in the steam can be achieved by creating a vapor barrier.To this end, the inside space layer insulation material mounted or applied several layers of oil paint.Then, on top of insulation applied decorative trim, and humid air is removed from the premises by means of forced isolation.

Another source of moisture vapor can become warm air coming from a heater in the side streets.If the thermal insulation on the external border is not organized competent ventilation, wet steam can be transformed into droplets of moisture.Between the outer skin and insulating materials create a special clearance and an environment conducive to the free movement of air currents - "thrust", which will print out the steam.

To protect the insulation material from the weather and to strengthen the effect of vapor barrier, the outer side of the wall to be treated with the help of material that provides protection from the wind, the insulation from moisture, and thus has excellent vapor permeability.

Note that can not be installed on the outside wall of a heat insulating material of the same type that was attached to the inside - a vapor material insulates the wall and blocks air able to move in the direction of the ventilation gap.Thus, the movement of air from the heat in the cold did not stop, but the whole process takes place within a thermal insulation system - thermal vapor cools and releases moisture, which, without going outside, remains on the surface of the heater and converted into ice.With the arrival of spring ice melts and thermal insulation materials are beginning to rot.

So, on the basis of the above, it is possible to deduce the formula of effective thermal insulation system works: the design should remain dry at any time of the year, and to ensure this condition is a vapor barrier on the inside wall and the outside vetrobarer.

Install furring

Before installing the sheathing, it is necessary to determine the material to be used as a shield.Consider the principle of mounting one example, when the installation batten for the installation of insulation comes with the subsequent installation of siding.

To install the necessary construction timbers treated with antiseptic composition, the thickness of which is 50 mm and the width is greater than the thickness of the fabric heater.If insulating material has a thickness of 80 mm, the boards should be from 100-110 mm, which ensures the air gap.Step lathing depends on the width of the insulation material plate.Insulation placed in slots formed between the bars, and then attached to the supporting wall by means of anchors.Number of anchors per square meter is calculated from the insulation material density, usually a 4-8 anchors.Then, the insulation layer is applied breathable material and siding.

This system is one of the easiest ways to install crates, because it has one drawback - wooden beams form a "cold bridges", having weak thermal resistance.Alternatively, you can use the mounting diagram crates in which the sheet of insulation is divided into two parts and put each layer on its own crate, and a top layer boards perpendicular to the bottom.This method of mounting virtually eliminates the formation of "cold bridges", although it requires to perform more time and effort.

Vapor Sealing Materials

vapor barrier is created by vapor barrier materials, to choose to be, depending on the type of design and fashion styling.Mounting paroizolyatora may be both vertically and horizontally from the inner side of the structure, protecting the insulating layer.Installation is made with galvanized nails with a flat head, a mechanical stapler.Sutures screen vapor barrier must be hermetically sealed, and the film integrity to prevent the movement of water vapor and moisture structure.

Seal the seams with special connectors is recommended on the basis of butilokauchuka ribbons.In addition, it can be laid overlapping individual strips paroizolyatora and fix them along the seam kontrbusom.When a vapor barrier is being installed on the ceilings of residential premises, attics, or in a space with high humidity, between the inner lining and paroizolyatorom necessary to provide ventilation gap of 2-5 cm, which prevents excessive moisture.

breathable materials

wind insulation is designed to protect the outer thermal insulation systems for water- and windproof wall structures, while maintaining the free flow of steam heat.

When selecting breathable material should be considered a basic requirement - vapor permeable resistance should be reduced depending on the direction of the heat steam from the inside of the street - "hot and cold temperatures."Thus, it can prevent the formation of condensation in the inner layers of the structure.

Note that the optimal level of vapor permeability can range from 150 to 300 g / m2-day at a cost of about 0.5 cuper square meter.But the use superdiffuzionnaya materials in water vapor permeability of 1000 g / m2-day special differences are not allowed, but will increase the cost of construction at a cost of 1 USDper square meter.

breathable materials set the inside of the protective structure, and right next to a thermal insulation layer.Installation is carried out vertically and horizontally, and the width between the blades should be at least 150 mm.Manufacturers focuses on the correct location of the right and wrong sides of paroizolyatorov: if the material is used correctly, the design instead of breathing can become an isolated and disrupt the normal functioning of the whole system.

vapor sealing materials enhance the design using stainless galvanized nails with a wide hat, or special brackets at 200 mm.The final stage of installation - Fastening galvanized nails with a bar section 50x50 mm and wall surface.

insulation brick (stone) wall

stone wall insulation can be made in two versions - with a further surface of the plastering and the creation of structures with a ventilated gap.Let us consider two ways of warming.

insulation with plastering surface

for thermal insulation of the stone walls used to further plastering contact facade thermal insulation, which include Belarus "Termoshuba" German Tex-Color, Ceresit, Heck and others.All systems have significant differences between the type of thermal insulation material, its method of attachment, reinforcement mesh, the composition of the protective layer and the adhesive, as well as their thickness.

Schemes insulation of each system have in common - they are attached to the wall using dowels, anchors and frameworks adhesive or mechanically, and then covered with a vapor-permeable layer of plaster.

insulation applied on a dry, clean and sturdy surface that can serve as a concrete, brick, wall penogazobetonnaya like plastered and unplastered.If the wall has significant irregularities, they should be aligned using grout.In the case where the surface of the brick wall is flat, you can do without a primer, can not be said about other kinds of walls.

INSULATION a brick (stone) surface in the following manner: first, it should be equipped with a support surface, as which can serve as the foundation of a protruding edge or the edge of the concrete slab.If such support is not necessary to build a metal or wooden falshoporu - support rail, the wood has to be removed before the plastering surface.

Insulation boards are placed on the wall on the principle of "dressing seams" - very close to each other.

Note that pasting tiles on the facades of the small area is not necessary, because in the future they will be attached mechanically.But the mechanical attachment is necessary that the design was strong.

After two or three days after bonding should begin plastering.First, door and window slopes strengthen aluminum or plastic corner profiles and has then applied the basic plaster layer.To apply a small layer of plaster, 12 mm thick mineral insulation, can be applied schelocheustoychivuyu fiberglass.If the layer is thick and 2-3 cm is used styrofoam, metal mesh is recommended.

As a rule, first applied a thick layer of plaster in the outer third of which is pressed reinforcing mesh, which allows the structure softer response to temperature changes.The second layer of plaster make thinner.Each strip should cover the grid across the width and length of about 10-20 cm and overlapping bend at the corners of the building.