Trace elements necessary for plant growth.

By Admin | Garden, Garden
27 May 2016
iron, manganese, boron, molybdenum, zinc, copper, sulfur - all of these substances can be rightly called trace elements (the need for them is a few thousandths of a percent).They are not integrated into the structure of the plant tissues, in other words, do not create a "body" and "weight".

Included in the many enzymes and vitamins, these elements act as accelerators and biological controls of complex biochemical processes.If their deficiency or excess in the soil at the vegetables, fruit trees, shrubs and flowers the metabolism, there are a variety of diseases.Therefore, the role of trace elements can not be underestimated.
Signs mineral starvation


Seven major

Iron regulates breathing plants.Its deficiency leads to disruption of photosynthesis and, as a consequence, to chlorosis (loss of green color and blanching) of young upper leaves.Sometimes suffering and shoots - they are covered with brown spots.

Manganese is also involved in the formation of chlorophyll, and its deficit is al
so manifested in the form of chlorosis.However, the picture is somewhat different: the leaf turn yellow, but veins remain green - leaf spot occurs, leading to the death of tissue sections.

Bor contributes to the process of growth.With its lack dies apical bud (growing point).Perhaps the yellowing of leaves, stems made brown or yellow.Sources of boron compounds - ash or manure.

Molybdenum plays a role in nitrogen metabolism and has a direct impact on productivity.Plants experiencing its deficit, the leaves appear bright spots, perhaps dying of kidney, fruits and tubers crack.The source of molybdenum compounds - ammonium molybdate.

Zinc regulates cellular metabolism.It manifests itself in a lack of strongly expressed mottling of older leaves, appears to them over the dead tissue, small-leaved.A characteristic feature of zinc deficiency - rosette of fruit: apple trees in the young shoots very short internodes, and leaves at the end of the shoot collected in the outlet.

Copper activates the formation of protein and B vitamins is very little of this element in sandy and peaty soils.Its deficiency is manifested in the steady withering of the upper leaves, even with good moisture maintenance, until their falling off.

Sera involved in the formation of vitamins, amino acids and proteins.Its deficit is difficult to identify, because apparently he had not expressed.Fortunately, there is seldom enough.The source of sulfur - sulfur compounds other mineral elements (potassium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfate).

How not to interfere with each other

It would seem that the easiest way to ensure a sufficient content of trace elements in the soil, - amendment of the corresponding salts, fertilizers.But the soil - a very complex system in which all interact with mineral elements, and this should be taken into account.

Plants can absorb any item if it is in a soluble form (soil solution) and root access.A elements, in turn, can change from a soluble state to an insoluble - and vice versa, depending on the acid value of the soil (pH) and their interaction.

Thus, at pH greater than 5.5 (acidic and weakly acidic soils) copper, zinc, manganese, iron is available for absorption, and molybdenum - no.At a pH of 7 or more (neutral or alkaline reaction soil), copper, molybdenum, iron, zinc, manganese made "inactive" and do not become assimilated solutions.

on cultivated soils need to be considered and "phosphorus factor": introduced in soil phosphorus fertilizer (superphosphate) contribute to the formation of insoluble compounds of iron, zinc and copper, making the absorption of these elements is difficult.

gardener layman difficult to assimilate all these biochemical intricacies even more difficult - to consider them and to control.Therefore it is better to use a so-called chelate (organic) compounds of trace elements (instead of salt).

chelates have a very stable structure.When changing soil conditions trace elements are in their composition, do not respond to it, and their interaction is eliminated.When choosing a fertilizer you need to decide what will apply - a complex complete or only a set of trace elements.However, in both cases it is necessary to make sure that the batteries are in the form of chelate compounds.

Again ...

Some elements of mineral nutrition of plants can be used repeatedly.This process, called reutilization , distributed primarily at macronutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium .With low content of these substances in the soil plant donates old leaves - and remove these elements have of them.Therefore, the off-season and yellowing of old leaves falling off - an indicator element of fasting.

reutilization not lend themselves to all the elements.Sulfur, for example - only partially, and calcium, iron, manganese, boron, copper and zinc in general can not be reused.
the ability of plants to quantify the consumption of mineral elements and their "preference" is also significantly different.Some of them show very real selectivity and have a reputation for plant-raisers.

accumulation elements plants

- calcium - beans, sunflowers, cabbage,
potatoes, buckwheat

- potassium - beans, potatoes, tomatoes,
sunflower, beet, cabbage, cucumber

- silicon and phosphorus - cereals

- sulfur - beans, onions, garlic

- manganese - fruits, cranberries, blueberries,
blueberries, beets

- zinc - beets, corn and tobacco

Knowing which element will be primarily removed in some plant from soil, can roughly calculate the power balance of each.

Adding micronutrients

usually trace in the form of salts recommend not incorporated into the soil, and used for foliar feeding.That is to spray them with a solution of plant leaves.This is due to the fact that the effectiveness of such dressings of the root is not too large - it depends largely on the particular soil conditions: composition, pH, temperature, etc.If foliar feeding the fertilizer absorbed almost instantly, especially if the solution falls on the inside of the leaf.However, here too there are limits:
plants absorb more active "food" for its leaf stomata in the morning (from 6.00 to 8.00) and in the evening (from 18.00 to 20.00) hours] in the rest of the time to fertilize them impractical.

However, all this applies only to the trace elements in the form of salts.Chelators assimilated by plants, regardless of the acidity of the soil, so they can be used for root and foliar feeding.

"Gardener" №8-2006