Autumn Star.

By Admin | Garden, Garden
26 May 2016
ASTER
Callistephus chinensis

Lighting - prefer sunny places

Soil - fertile

Watering - moderate, dry weather;can not stand water stagnation

Growing - seedlings and nonseedlings ways possible by planting winter

Diseases and pests - blight, blackleg, aphids



That asters - one of the most popular annual flowersYou can be sure and visit any store seeds.In each - the seeds of dozens of varieties.Until the 80s of the last century breeding asters in our country was engaged in a number of scientific institutions were created hundreds of different varieties and astonishingly beautiful.And now appeared on the market and interesting varieties from abroad.

"Matsumoto"

native land of this plant - the northern regions of China, Mongolia, Korea, and the Russian Far East.Botanists call it callistephus chinensis Chinese (Callistephus: chinensis).But for most gardeners accustomed to his middle name - annual aster .In wild callistephus chinensis: relatively small scale (certainly in compa
rison with the modern varieties) nemahrovye inflorescence, similar to chamomile.Their shape and gave the name of the genus, as translated from the Greek word callinos means "beautiful», stephos- «wreath», a aster- «star».

wild forms in the culture of long ago replaced the numerous varieties, which now has more than six hundred.They all have a well-developed fibrous root system and branched nearly from the base of the bush.What we commonly call a blossoms, actually an inflorescence, or baskets.Numerous aster petals - this is the flowers.And they come in two types: edge - lozhnoyazychkovye, women's, and central - tubular, bisexual.Outside inflorescence (basket) covered wrap - middle-sized green leaves.On the similarities between varieties of asters, perhaps, to an end.And the differences begin:

- plant height - from 20 to 100 cm;
- shaped bush - can be spherical, oval, columnar, pyramidal or sprawling;
- color leaves - from light green to dark green with a touch of anthocyanin;
- on the timing of flowering - from early blooms 70 days after emergence, to the late blooms only after 120-130 days.

But most of all different shades and shape of the inflorescence.What did not happen asters: there are white, pink, red, salmon, yellow, blue, purple - almost all colors of the rainbow, with the exception of bright orange and black.There are two-color, for example, the edge of the petals of blue or red, and the middle - white.There are varieties in which the center is painted white, and a few rows of extreme flowers - pink, red or purple.

classes and types

"Kvartseaya Tower"


The shape of the inflorescence varieties of asters are divided into classes and types.There are three classes: tubular , whose decorative effect is created only tubular flowers; transitional - which are decorative and tubular and ligulate flowers; reed - create a decorative effect reed flowers.

The first class consists of only one type of inflorescence - tubular.The second class includes three types: simple (nemahrovye, romashkovidnye with 1-2 rows of ray flowers and yellow short tube in the middle); semi-double (similar to the previous one, but the ligule 3-5 series); coronary (several rows of ray flowers and center -razrosshiesya differently colored tubular flowers).

Reed most numerous class, it includes 6 types of inflorescences: curly (petals are long, wide, curls curled a); ray (petals twisted into long tubes, but not fused); needle (petals are fused into a long needle-like tube); hemispherical (wide flat reed flowers facing upwards); spherical (gustomahrovye inflorescences in which the upper, short, flat lobes directed upwards, and the lower bent down); imbricate (short, wide petals are folded down in the form of shingles).

"NN korrallen"

Numerous varieties of asters are united in more than 40 sortotipov or garden groups.Describe them all in one article is not possible.The table shows only the most famous or interesting.

Growing

Of course, the main reasons for the popularity of the annual aster - the beauty and diversity of inflorescences.But it is not the last role and unpretentiousness.

annual aster Grow seedlings and nonseedlings way.When seedling seeds sown in late March - early April in boxes or directly into the ground greenhouses - a notch, prisypaya ground seeds (0.5 cm), pour a light pink solution of potassium permanganate and cover with paper or film.To seedlings are not sick, "blackleg", before sowing the seeds dusted with fungicide and soil shed its solution.

After 3-5 days, when the shoots appear, remove the paper from the boxes and put them into a bright place to the seedlings are not stretched.When the first true leaf seedlings were diving at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other in pots or in the ground box greenhouses as seedlings asters tolerates transplant, even bare-root.If podsemyadolnoe knee seedlings greatly lengthened, when swordplay they can deepen almost to the cotyledon leaves.One week after pricking the seedlings begin to feed (every seven days).In the open ground planted it since the middle of May, because the plant is cold-resistant - can tolerate frosts to -3-4 ° C.

"Baby scharlach"


place for these plants need to choose a bright, smooth, so that the water when watering, and in rainy weather does not stagnate.It is desirable that within 3-4 years in this place did not grow asters and other crops affected by Fusarium (potatoes, tomatoes, wallflowers).In making the soil humus or compost (but not fresh manure, it contributes to the defeat of plants by Fusarium), complex, or phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (40-60 g nitrophosphate or 60-80 g of superphosphate, and 30-40 g of potassium fertilizers) and wood ash (100-150 g) per square meter.But if the soil is well domesticated, rich in nutrients, then you can do without fertilizer.

Before planting seedlings abundantly watered, especially if it is grown without pots.Better to plant plants in cloudy weather or at night at a distance of 20-30 cm (depending on the height of splendor and variety).After 7-10 days after planting asters can fertilize complex fertilizer and repeat fertilizer in 3-4 weeks.In dry weather, the plants watered moderately.

When nonseedlings way the seeds sown in the ground in early spring, as soon as the soil is ready.Seeds are sown in shallow furrows poured a layer of soil 0.5-0.8 cm, well watered in dry weather and a little mulch or cover covering materials before emergence.Well-developed seedlings in the phase of 2-3 true leaves thinned out to a distance of 10-15 cm. The extra seedlings is better not to pull out, and gently dig up and transplant to another location.

On heavy soils aster seeds can be sown in spring, not only, but also for the winter (frozen soil in the prepared grooves).In this case, the plant is nearly three times less likely to be damaged by Fusarium.Spring seedlings thinned.

Flowering asters start - depending on the type and method of cultivation - from late June until mid-August.Flowering continues until frost.

Many varieties of asters nice knotted seeds in central Russia.To save a favorite variety, you need to wait until the petals wither on the inflorescence, and its center will darken, and it will begin to appear white fluff.These inflorescences tear, put in paper bags and dried in a warm, dry place.In the package, you must write the name of the variety, or at least color and shape of the inflorescence, and the year of harvesting.One of the few downsides - the seeds during storage rather quickly lose their germination: in 1-2 years with 90-95% of it is reduced to 40-50.

Dictionary

Anthocyanins - Colorants (pigments) of plants in red, blue and purple.Anthocyanins are dissolved in the cell sap;together with other pigments determine color fruits, flowers, foliage.

"Gardener" №10-2006