And rightly so.Because hardiness - a concept difficult
Every winter, at least for two or three days, hitting a hard frost.But recognized varieties of fruit trees it is usually not dangerous.Many varieties of apples this year after a forty-degree frosts and long spring despite the poor prognosis not only survived, but also not bad fruited.And sometimes in a relatively mild winter freeze whole gardens - also, incidentally, is quite hardy plants.Why is that?
hardiness - it is not just the ability to sort painlessly migrate long overcooling.This is a complex property that consists of several signs, each of which alone is insufficient to grade can be confidently called hardiness.
Here are the signs:
- resistant varieties to the severe frosts in early winter;
- resistance to extreme long frosts in the middle of winter;
- resistance to sharp frosts return after the thaw;
- gradual return to stability after the frost thaws.
variety may be resistant like all signs, and for only a few.
conditions in suburbs any plant variety must be stable in the first component at -25 C, the second - at -40 ° C, the third - at -25 C, the fourth - at the level of -35 C.
These temperature limits are derived experimentally by many years of observations of experts of the progress of winter temperatures and the development of plants.In each region, such values are established on the basis of agroclimatic directory.
And if we do not want to worry every winter about what will survive in our garden, and what does not, you should take these extreme cold temperature performance as "survival rate" in the area.
Heredity is important
On what does the winter hardiness?In many respects it is determined hereditary factors.Here is a good historical example.Vysokozimostoyky apple varieties 'Cinnamon striped' well endured the winter of 1940 near Moscow at -42 ° C.Derived on the basis thereof varieties 'Lighthouse' and 'Autumn Joy' in the winter of 1978-1979 survived at -41,5 ° C and hybrid seedlings of these varieties ('Lighthouse' x 'Golden Delicious') in 2005 stood artificial freezing up-40 ° C.That is the level of winter hardiness for 60 years has not gone down, and passes from generation to generation.
Is it possible to do something to help nezimostoykim winter varieties of apple?
Some amateur gardeners are trying to cover for the winter young plants of heat-loving varieties of apple trees.Alas, this is only an illusion of security.No wrapping does not change the properties of the variety and will not save the seedling just cold get to him a little later.
We call names
Sometimes gardeners conclude: those varieties that survive in the harsh climate of the eastern regions of the country, especially in the western areas will survive.This conclusion is wrong.For example, a Siberian cultivar 'Red Sails' for the second component of hardiness withstand -45 ° C, but with the return after thawing frost freezes at -24 ° C.Why is that?Because in Siberia thaw with temperatures above zero in mid-winter uncommon, grade them, "is not accustomed.""Siberian" is suitable for cultivation in the northern regions of the European part of Russia, where the climate is similar to the rigors of Siberia, and in the center and south is risking - Frost him uneasy, but the January thaw, and return after the deadly cold, because in the winter thaws in SiberiaIt can not be.Here's a paradox.
But many residents of their favorite southern suburbs varieties 'Golden Delicious' and 'rennet Simirenko' is just the opposite.The third and fourth components of the southerners kept frost -24 ° C and is completely capable of growing in the middle lane in a "normal" winter.But it is worth Srednerussky frost at least an hour or two closer to the extreme elevation (-40 ° C), and of these varieties of apple trees are dying.
However, high hardiness and excellent fruit quality suburban apple may well be combined.
example, the new Moscow-grade
'Arkadik' and the first component is resistant to frost hardiness -30 ° C, and on the other - fully meets all the requirements for the suburbs.Total hardiness it above 'Antonovka' not inferior to 'Cinnamon Stripes'.And its large red-striped juicy apples to taste the fruits compete with 'Melba'.Grade 'Lighthouse Zagorje' combines the properties of the "ancestors" - high winter hardiness 'Lighthouse' to the productivity and fruit quality 'Golden Delicious'.
In XX century extreme cold covered the European territory of Russia only twice - in January 1940, and in December-January 1978-1979.And since the beginning of the 1980s the Russians began to get used to the unusually warm winters.And they were shocked by what happened in mid-January 2006.Therefore, it is useful to remind gardeners about how things were going winter for the last five years.
warmest winter in the entire observation period (since 1900) in the Central Federal District of Russia - but the coldest December in the Volga region.
unusually warm January across most of European Russia, except for Karelia, Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Leningrad regions.There's the average air temperature was below normal by 2 ^ 1 ° C.In March, the cold returned, some in the central regions of European Russia and in the Volga region was not seven years.
beginning of the year - an abnormally warm, particularly in the south, where in January was the warmest in the past 20 years.In Moscow in January 2004 it was the most snow in the history of meteorological observations - fell 210% of the monthly norm.
Since 1900 - the warmest year in the whole country, as well as in Siberia and the North-West Federal District.The warmest January in the central regions of Russia.
whole European Russia, except for the Murmansk, Leningrad, Novgorod regions and Republic of Karelia, was dominated by the cold.In the middle of January, the temperature fell to -30 ° C ... -35 ° C.