Lighting - shade-
Soil - fertile, moist
Propagation - by seed, layering, cuttings, grafting
Diseases and pests - aphids, weevils, hazel leaf mite, mildewrust
Close shady shrub that grows in the undergrowth, attracts not only lovers of cracking nuts.Hazelnut and landscape designers like: branchy magnificent crone, large leaves, spring - long golden earrings fall - a beautiful lemon-yellow foliage.And yet - tolerates shade, resistant to pollution, and growing in light sandy soil and heavy loam, if there is drainage, strengthens the slopes, not afraid of the wind ...
common hazel (Corylus avellana) is found only in the forests of the European part of Russia, its range extends to the Urals.Leaves of young shoots eat moose, bears, wild boars, squirrels and even moles;Nuts like woodpeckers.
Wild form called hazel hazel or hazel itself and cultivated - hazelnuts.In culture, there are several hundred varieties of hazelnuts.
In southern Russia are grown mainly Filbert (Corylus maxima, it - Lombard walnut).In the middle zone, it periodically frosting and almost does not give fruit, and have matured nuts nucleoli are not gaining the desired taste.However, it can be grown as a coppice culture, greatly trimming early spring: the young shoots quickly go to the growth and will create a decorative effect.
For the middle band is more characteristic of common hazel.In forest clearings it provides an abundant crop of good fixes slopes and slopes.Traditionally, it is used in a large park in a bush for forest edges.However, it can be grown in the hedges, and as a single plant.
hazel nuts nutritionally superior to meat and fish, contain up to 65% fat, which is easily absorbed by the body.
hazel wood - white with light brown tint, hard and flexible at the same time - a good building material.Because it makes the cane hoops for barrels, handle tools, bent furniture: weave baskets of twigs and cities fences.In earlier times, from the burning of coal hazel went on production of high quality powder and charcoal pencils made of hazel, graphic artists and now prefer to all others.The bark is suitable for tanning and dyeing leather.Bees are not the same indifferent to hazel in spring it is one of the first to start a family bee pollen supply.
Cupule - cupped bed, which sit fruits hazel, hornbeam, beech, oak, chestnut;sometimes overgrown Cupule covers the whole fruit (in walnut and horse chestnut).
Ambrosia - Pollen collected by honey bees laid in the honeycomb cells, bathed in honey and canned lactic acid is formed.Protein-carbohydrate food for bees.
As already mentioned, hazel shade-and wind-resistant.But the dense shade and cold winds worse fruits.Therefore, a place to land should be chosen sunny and sheltered from the wind.
for an abundant harvest, it is imperative to put next to some bushes.Although the plant is monoecious and it needs cross-pollination wind.
Hazel loves moist rich soil, but is sensitive to the level of ground water - it should not be greater than 1 m from the surface of the soil.
multiplies this shrub is not difficult.This is done by seeds (fruit begins 6-10 years), layering, dividing the bush, root suckers (the first harvest - at the age of 4-5 years), garden forms - vaccination.When spring sowing seeds need stratification.
most spectacular varieties of common hazel - 'Contorta'.Its intricately twisted twisting branches are especially beautiful without leaves on snow background - they are often used to produce florists flower arrangements.At the beginning of spring appear thin earrings - their golden vertical stress pattern curved branches, abundant light yellowish haze hanging pollen.This variety grows slowly, under favorable conditions, rises up to 3 meters, but gives a lot of luggage and distributed across.The leaves are wrinkled and wavy.For planting any suitable soil in the shade and in the sun.In the middle zone is slightly frosted, but then quickly recovered.
From hazelnut varieties with an unusual form of crown is called weeping Pendula.It is especially good in the form shtambovoy - drooping branches form a picturesque cascade.
Leszczyny krapivolistnaya and oakleaf recommend themselves - their names are given for the shape of the leaves.
Purpurnolistnye grade unpretentious and easily take root in any garden.Bright bushes attract the attention of the spring in the second half of the summer their leaves are green, but nuts, involucre * and earrings are burgundy.From krasnolistnyh varieties are best known 'Rotblattige Zellernuss', 'Fuscorubra' (aka 'Atropurpurea'), 'Chocolate Red' and 'Moscow Ruby'.
Variety 'Purpurea', derived from Filbert, is large, up to 15 cm, with beautiful leaves, dark red the whole summer season, and pink shell kernels.And the varieties' Rubra'krasny color has only a nutshell.
All varieties of hazel effectively look against the background of a neat lawn, and next to the forest thicket.Landscape designers often use them in wood compositions, especially purpurnolistnye forms as accent spots.Almost every garden you can find a place for this wonderful bush that gets along well with other plants, including large trees.
Bondorina Irina, Ph.D., a research fellow GBS RAS
«Gardener» №11 - 2006