Cauliflower has a special place in our gardens.But before in Russia have learned to grow, the seeds of cabbage at fantastic prices discharged from the island of Malta, and only for the manor estates.
There are two subspecies of cauliflower.One of them presented with faint asparagus varieties branching, the second most common, is characterized by very strong branching, and includes four sortotipov: Italian, northwest European, French and northern European.
The cauliflower is different from the broccoli?
head of cauliflower consists of a sprawling underdeveloped stems and flowers, while the broccoli, it is formed from the flower buds.They differ in nutritional value, chemical composition and taste.Cauliflower is rich in easily digestible protein, the number of amino acids is not inferior to beef and contains rare vitamin H, strengthens the nervous system.It accumulates less fat, more sugar and B vitamins A broccoli superior color on the content of vitamin C and carotene.
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soil, food, light ...
Cauliflower is a fairly fastidious culture.Its roots are close to the soil surface, so the sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity adversely affect the development of the plant.It is sensitive to a lack of nutrients, grows poorly on thin soils, in the shade, does not tolerate dry wind.
Broccoli, on the contrary, characterized by ruggedness, and long ripening crop.New head formed until the autumn frosts.Early varieties from emergence until a head passes 50-80 days, while the colored - 90-120.
soil. Cauliflower prefers soil rich in nutrients and moisture, hardly makes sour, cold and wet and prone to drying out.Broccoli grows well in any soil except acidic (pH optimum 6.5-7.5).Early varieties of both crops is better to work out early to dry light soils, medium and late varieties favorable light, loamy and clayey soils.Land prepared for them since the autumn, digging up the bayonet on the shovel with the introduction of a bucket per 1 m2 of mature compost or humus.
temperature. optimum temperature for seed germination and plant growth - 15-18 ° C.Cauliflower autumn withstand short-term freezing -4-5 ° C, broccoli -7-10 "C, but in the spring of early varieties damaged by -2" S.During the long cold spells develop cauliflower suspended leaves turn purple, formed rough head, and in the heat (above 25 ° C), head shrinking, become hairy and loose.At the broccoli in a dry hot summer head quickly crumble and flowers are revealed.
Light.When long photoperiod cauliflower and broccoli will form the head, but earlier in the fall flowering shoots.Therefore, the cultivation of seedlings' on short day "promotes the formation of larger and more dense heads.At the same time, these plants are very demanding on the light at the beginning of growth.When shading or thickening seedlings stretches and becomes vulnerable to various diseases.
watering.Both varieties hygrophilous: optimal soil moisture 70%, air - 80%.When wetting the soil roots suffocate, and with a lack of moisture and dryness of the air decreases the quality of vegetables.
Power. growth cauliflower favors organic fertilizers.She requires twice more nutrients than white.A balanced diet of macro- and micronutrients promotes good growth of leaves and the formation of larger heads.With a lack of boron in the soil darken cauliflower head, magnesium deficiency leads to hollow stumps.And if you do not have enough molybdenum, head generally is not formed and deformed leaves.Cauliflower not tolerate potassium fertilizers containing chlorine.By demanding to soil fertility is close to the color of broccoli.In addition to the main battery, it is also necessary micronutrients, especially molybdenum.
These cultures work out better in the rainy cool summer.Get an early harvest cauliflower and broccoli can be on the sheltered, well-lit areas of the sun, where the soil warms up quickly.To get more than one crop, grown in a few terms.The best precursors - early potatoes, cucumbers, legumes, root crops;bad - plants of the cabbage family.
Seedlings.Early seedlings is better to cook in the pot, sowing in March - April.The nutrient mixture suitable lowland peat, turf ground and compost in equal amounts with the addition of 250 grams of lime per 10 kg of the mixture.Maintain soil moisture at the secondary level, preventing drying.After picking
important to maintain the temperature at 16-18 ° C, and in the phase of these two or three leaflets to lower it to 13 ° C during the day and 8 ° C -Night.For 10 days before transplanting reduce watering to a minimum, and to lower the day temperature 8-12 ° C.After such a "hardening" of the head will be formed quickly.Seedlings are useful to expose the light and "hardening".
For the second and third period of planting seedlings, you can cook without pots directly in the garden, sowing the seeds of the scheme 6x6, 8x8 cm, covering pest lutrasilom.
Planting seedlings. planted only healthy, large (but not overgrown) seedlings with well developed root system.Before planting abundantly pour water to the roots is not broken off, and remove diseased specimens.It is recommended to bury the seedlings to the first pair of true leaves, but does not fill the growing point.The scheme of planting - 50x35 cm for early varieties, 50x40 cm - for later.
Care. Early planting more likely to suffer from the cold mornings, so they need to cover non-woven fabric.Watering is sufficient three to four times per season, or once a week (during hot weather).Do it better in the evening, after loosening the soil, and the moisture is absorbed quickly.In hot weather, useful refreshing watering irrigation (10 l / m ').Once the seedling has taken root, Feed the plants with liquid manure (1: 5), chicken manure (1:10) or compost "tea".In cool weather, when the roots of "work" is bad, you can spray the leaves with a solution of trace elements (1 tablet per 10 liters).
frequent loosening and hilling before the first leaves to help the formation of additional roots, save the plants from the cabbage fly.Varieties with a partially open head for gentle product quality require bleaching.To do this at the beginning of the formation head snapped two or three outer leaves and tie them over the head.
Cauliflower is affected by the same pests and diseases as other varieties of cabbage.Broccoli is more resistant to disease.Early harvest ripens in the second half of July.Cutting head selectively, as they are ripening: cauliflower-together with three or four rosette leaves in broccoli - the upper part of the fleshy stems.
Can you cook cauliflower or broccoli in the microwave?
& amp; Spanish scientists believe that it should not do so as microwaves destroy beneficial antioxidants, such as flavonoids.It is best to cook this wonderful steamed vegetables, with most nutrients remain.
varieties and hybrids
early varieties and hybrids of cauliflower:
Movir 14 Gribovskaya Early in 1355, F1 BAPA, F1 Belvedere Summer Resident, Princess, F1 Malimba, F1 Fraga, F1 Vinson, F1Kafa, F1 Snowstorm, F1 Stargate, F1 Snowball.Middle-
Patriotic, Pioneer, Regent MS Rober, Snoubom 123 Berdergruss, BluDaymond, CL 650, F1 Lateman, F1 Fremont, F1 Mignon, F1 Livingston, F1 Smilla.
F1 Ameyzing, F1 Gregor RE, F1 Dzheres, F1 Montano, F1 Tomba RH, Celeste, F1 Alpina, F1 Becker, F1 Tetris, Parisian, Unaina.
F1 Amerigo, F1 Asterix, F1 Space Star, F1 Dalton, F1 Fortouz.Late-
Bait Boat, F1 Casper RZ, F1 Cortes, F1 Skywalker.
very popular varieties with yellow-green color of the head, such as Universal, as well as the type of Romanesco cauliflower with original cone-shaped head green color with a violet hue (F1 hybrid Amphora).
Early varieties of broccoli:
Vyarus, Young's tone.
middle-Linda, F1 Montop.
of medium: Monterey, F1 Lucky.Late-
Lebedev, PhD c / Agricultural Sciences
According to the magazine "Outdoor Life"