A fir needles are soft, thornless, silky to the touch, much longer than spruce.Tree branches densely covered with dark green needles.And it seems it is more "fluffy" than a Christmas tree.So, perhaps, in Western Europe it is fir and spruce are not - Christmas tree.
smell as it should be, coniferous.But some types of citrus presented a surprise in Abies concolor pounded needles smell of lemon, fir and pretty - orange.
Unlike other conifers fir bark is thin and with swollen, filled with resin.Crohn's conical in a young tree, the branches evenly spaced;in middle age as they are pressed against the trunk and crown "flattened."
Biology and reproduction
Fir - high and durable wood.In the early years it is growing slowly, but then growth is accelerating.Living long fir: Siberian and Khingan - 150-250 years holophylla survive in nature for 500 years, Caucasian - to 800. The height of the trees, too, at the level of the record: a giant fir growing in the mountain forests of eastern North America, up to 100 meters and is consideredthe tallest tree in the world.And the average growth of other types of not less than 25-30 meters.Most
fir and shade-loving, even excessive shading transferred easily.But they prefer to grow in fertile, humus-rich soils.They respond well to shearing and forming the crown.But, alas, are very sensitive to soil and atmospheric pollution, the inevitable in large cities, trampling and compaction of soil around the trunk.Therefore, they are so rarely seen in urban parks and gardens, their preferred conditions suburban or rural.
fir - the plant is monoecious, propagated mostly by seeds.Pollination occurs in the spring, before the bloom young needles.Ripe cones disintegrate into flakes, which, together with the wind carries seeds.It produces a lot of seeds;despite the fact that they are "winged" and can be transported with the wind over long distances, under the canopy of fir can always find young plants rooted self-seeding.
addition fir seed and vegetative reproduction possible - layering.Sometimes the nature of the lower branches of a fir Sakhalin, Siberia, Caucasus root themselves (in the culture is much less common).
From Siberian fir needles produce an aromatic essential oil.The seeds contain up to 26% oil, which is used for making high quality coatings.One mature tree in the Siberian fir bark incision gives up to 200 grams of resin - a mixture of the cell sap, oil and resin, which is used in medicine as raw and for balsam fir.Balsam fir resin - raw material for Canadian balsam, light yellow liquid, used in surgery to heal surgical wounds.Furthermore, the resin of the tree - the environment for fixing preparations during microscopic examination and indispensable adhesive compound optical glasses without loss of transparency.And needles - a source of aromatics, which are used in perfumery.Young branches offer fir oil with a high content of borneol - raw material for the production of camphor.
For cultivation in the middle lane approach p. Siberian, plain, Khingan, holophylla, balsamic, Sakhalin.
too much difficulty with growing firs there.The plant "will be able" to all who are not indifferent to the pine.
fir can be planted in spring (April) or fall (in early September).The root collar is sure to leave at ground level.Landing pit depth is 60-80 cm - depending on the size of coma.Soil mixture for planting firs made from sheet earth, peat and sand in the ratio 3: 1: 1.
established plants need to fertilize in the spring of complex fertilizers.Watering and irrigation requires regular but excessive waterlogged soil, they do not tolerate.Tree trunks mulched wood chips or peat layer up to 8 cm.
Fir health needs pruning - removal of dead and weak branches.But as a young plant is pulled up slowly, until the age of 10-15 years engaged in the formation of the crown is not necessary - it will cause the tree shock and lead to slower growth.
Young plants are recommended for winter shelter is not so much from the cold, but from the sun, causing redness of the needles.Correctly and in time planted fir species which are recommended for central Russia, are growing normally and winter.
Total known for more than 50 species of fir, 7 of them grow in Russia.
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) • Tree to 25 m tall, native to North America, where it grows in the mountains and swamps, and lowland.Externally similar to the Siberian fir, but has a more broad crown, bronze-red color scales in the kidney and seeds with a very wide (10 cm) of gray-violet wing.Cones cylindrical form (6-10 cm).Hardiness and does not require the shelter.
Siberian fir (A. sibirica) • height of 30 m. Crohn uzkokonicheskaya, shpilevidnaya, very decorative.The branches in the upper crown, horizontal, bottom hanging to the ground and are able to take root.Needles are dark green, shiny, below with two narrow white stripes on a tree holds up to 10 years.Shade-tolerant and hardy, frost does not suffer.It can grow on calcareous or alkaline soils, but avoids wetlands and survives on poor sandy soils.
Abies Holophylla (A. hollophyla) • Powerful shirokokonicheskoy slender tree with a spreading crown, up to 40-45 m. The needles are rigid, flat, sharp, is located on the shoots comb.Initial growth is very slow, but the rate of growth later this kind of fir surpasses many conifers.Prefers moist and well-drained soil, does not tolerate standing water.Unlike other fir withstand excessive light.Hardiness.
Abies concolor (A. concolor) • One of the most beautiful fir as the color of pine needles, and the structure of the crown.It grows in the mountains of western North America.It occupies shady slopes and canyons along the rivers found in the crevices of rocks, climbs mountains to an altitude of 2000-3000 m. Crohn's thick shirokopiramidalnaya, horizontal branches.The needles are large, sometimes sickle curved, bluish-green on both sides.The first 10-15 years of life is growing slowly, then the annual growth increases and reaches 30-50 cm. The young seedlings are susceptible to late spring frosts, so they need to cover the fall spruce spruce branches, and do not remove it until the middle of April.With age (from 5-7 years) type of resistance to frost is improved.
especially decorative blue uniform Abies concolor 'Violacea'.Her bluish-white, long, sickle-curved needles.It tolerates transplantation with a clod of earth at any age.Young conifer seedlings can be damaged sunburn, so in February and March, when the direct insolation and light reflection from the snow most of all, we recommend further lashed out at the seedling lutrasil.
ornamental varieties p. Monochrome adapted to European conditions:
'Archer's Dwarf' • dwarf form with a blue-gray needles;
'Compacta' • bushy dwarf plant with uneven crown development, long needles, blue;It grows well in dry and high places;'Piggelmee' 'a miniature form of a maximum height of 30 cm;needles thick, bluish-gray;"Wattezii'- undersized plants (50 cm), young needles pale yellow, then white aluminum.
" Gardener "№12-2006