Preparation of compost

By Admin | Garden, Garden
23 May 2016
Preparation of compost - is not easy.Although it is believed that to get it quite easily: the weeds and waste collected, folded in a pile, he poured water, sheltered - and ready.The reality is somewhat different.

Now gardeners and gardeners tend to return to organic farming.Many are involved with the main principle of this technology - the natural fertility of the soil is maintained by organic fertilizers and compost.

heat and damp

compost heap - a living bioreactor.The main conditions of the course of biochemical reactions - heat and moisture.Hence the first requirement: compost pile should be covered.If she lays a whole, as a covering material may be ground, dry grass or leaves.If the organic matter accumulates gradually, the best option - a black polyethylene film.

Size matters

To maintain temperature and humidity is very important size of a compost pile.

width and height it should be 1.2-1.5 m, length - not less than 1.5 m.

at smaller sizes will give a bunch of moisture, dry and warm
enough.In addition, without the required degree of warming up process is slower, although the product is obtained as a result of very high quality.Conversely, too large pile will overheat and the heat will destroy microorganisms.

Maturation of compost is the fastest in the summer months, when the microflora is "working" at full strength.All the transformation of the organic mass is influenced by the micro- and macro-organisms: Strengthening breeding, releasing energy and products of their livelihoods, they customize and accelerate all biochemical processes.Compost heap - a kind of incubator of soil flora and fauna.A mature compost - not only the fertilizer but also carrier vitality soil.

Invisible folk

Where are in the compost heap invisible workers - micro- and macro-organisms?It is important to its location.Earth - the habitat of earthworms and other organisms involved in the composting process.Where you plan to place the compost heap, the earth must be alive and deliver "employees."If compost is to lay on the scorched, poisoned by chemicals earth, and mature to be a very long time.

To expedite the process, svezhezalozhennuyu compost pile, you can populate the microflora using biologics -kontsentratov soil microorganisms, and high-quality compost will mature in one season (in vivo process lasts 2-3 years).Bioconcentrates compost produced under different brand names - "Baikal", "Revival»

What put

more diverse organic waste, the more completely turn the compost.It will not only richer in mineral elements - change for the better and the quality of humus.

Mandatory condition - the correct ratio of carbon and nitrogen in compostable materials.

Carbon - a necessary element for building organic molecules.It delivers all plants, but especially a lot of carbon in the woody parts and waste (sawdust, straw, twigs, stalks).Nitrogen-containing components - food for microorganisms.The source of nitrogen - fresh manure, chicken manure, bone meal, grass cuttings, stems of peas and beans.

to the composting process has started, it is necessary that the organic mass to 1 part nitrogen accounted for 10-20 parts carbon.If this relationship is violated, then the excess component is removed in the form of simple substances (ammonia and carbonic gas).

addition of organic components in the future you need to make compost and mineral supplements - dolomite flour (deoxidizer and a source of calcium and magnesium), superphosphate (phosphorus source) and complex mineral fertilizer.These components are much better absorbed when they passed through the compost, but not incorporated into the soil.

compost pile - not a dump or trash.Do not send to the compost diseased or infested plants, weeds with ripe seeds.But the quality of the compost will improve if it add so-called biodynamic (helps to speed up the formation of humus) plants - valerian, nettle, dandelion, chamomile, yarrow.

determine whether the compost is ready, it is not difficult.The bulk homogeneous material is dark brown with a smell of forest land - is what he is.

Listopad

Special article - compost fallen leaves, or as it is often called is not quite true - ground sheet.

leaves before abscission given mineral elements, which move in the branches and roots.The leaf tissue are only difficultly decomposable organic substances - hemicellulose and lignin.But it is just what is the "semi-finished" stable humus - medium fertility.

contained in fallen leaves and is very difficult degradable substances - tannins.Especially a lot of them in the leaves of beech and oak, very much - in the leaves of chestnut, willow and sycamore.Tannins are astringent, disinfecting, so the foliage of these trees decompose slowly, it can only be used to cover the pile.

compost from fallen leaves ripens an average of two years.It improves soil structure and water-holding capacity.This compost is especially good at sand and heavy clay soils.The nutrients in it is not much, but with the leaf compost into the soil gets specific flora - microfungi, which under force to decompose lignin and hemicellulose.It is important for garden plants, whose roots live in symbiosis with micro-fungi, such as heather.


L. Vinogradov, PhD.

«Gardener» №5-2007