Lighting - demanding to light
soil rich in humus, breathable, moisture capacity, the normal acidity
Watering - hygrophilous
temperature - cold tolerance;the optimum temperature - 12 - 16 degrees Celsius.During fruit set and budding - 18 - 25 heat.
Diseases and pests - askohitoz, anthracnose, root rot, rust, powdery mildew, pea weevils, pea aphid, and pea weevil.
his home to find West Asia and the mountainous regions of North Africa, but also at the excavations of Stone Age settlements in Switzerland, archaeologists found a pea seeds.We are not far behind Europe: in Russia in fossils V-VII centuries also met peas.And now it is grown everywhere - in Asia, America, Europe and Australia.
Pea belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae).Its appearance is well known: tetrahedral stalk height of 2.5 m, sometimes branching.Leaves paripinnate usually end with a mustache.The flowers of different colors, up to seven pieces.Fruits - beans and seeds - peas, smooth or wrinkled (inscription on the banks
Vegetable peas divided into two groups: Shelling and sugar.In sugar beans, or blades, gentle, sweet.The valves can be eaten whole - they remain juicy until the end of wax ripeness.In grades shelling peas inside of the wings covered with bean inedible parchment layer.Use only unripe seeds - "green peas".Prepare the soil
Peas sown in early spring, and the soil is prepared in the fall for him.Earth dug to a depth of 20-30 cm, make 1 sq.m 4-6 kg of compost, or humus, 15-20 g of potassium salt of 20-40 g of superphosphate.In the spring, during loosening, add ashes.Especially large crop of peas can be obtained if the soil has been well fertilized under the previous culture.Under the peas can be made only rotted manure, fresh can not be used - it causes excessive growth of green mass at the expense of the formation of flowers and fruits.
best precursors for peas, early potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkin.Sam peas, like other legumes, - the best predecessor of all cultures.Return the peas to the old place can be no earlier than four years.
peas are suitable for almost any soil, its mechanical structure is not important, it may be clay and loam, and sandy.Acidic soils should first proizvestkovat (300-400 g of lime per 1 sq. M).Under the peas should be allocated a sunny place, avoiding close groundwater, as plant roots penetrate deeply into the soil - a meter or more.
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peas grown nonseedlings way.Pre-soaked seeds - pour water at room temperature so as to cover them completely, and incubated for 12-18 hours, changing every 3-4 hours.It can be treated pea growth regulators (within 2-3 hours), or 5 minutes to heat in hot water dissolving therein micronutrient.If the seed bit, they are kept in a moist tissue until they begin to germinate.Prepared seeds are sown in moist ground.
Sowing begin very early, from the end of April.As cold-resistant culture peas germinate even at 4-7 ° C, seedlings can withstand freezing down to -6 "C, but still at an early sowing is better to close the bed of the film.
Pea seeds remain viable5 - 6 years.
fertilizers containing chlorine, inhibit the growth of pea.
trace elements (cobalt, molybdenum, zinc) significantly increase the productivity of peas.
According to the content of carbohydrates and protein peas, like other legumes, is superior to many vegetables. BiologicalPea protein is determined by the value of the high digestibility of the amino acids are in it. Peas are rich in vitamins A, B :, B? and C, salts of phosphorus, calcium, iron and fiber.
In folk medicine aerial parts of the plant are used in the form of infusion asa diuretic. When pustular skin diseases used a poultice of pea flour.
Sow peas in a few dates with a shift of 10 days.Last time it is best done in late May, as well blossom and bear fruit plants may only during the long daylight hours.
Usually peas sown in rows with spacing of 15-20 cm between plants in a row - 5-6 cm. Make the groove and laid them peas.The soil is leveled and lightly compacted.Planting depth - 3-4 cm. Too shallow planting seeds can peck the bird, so to avoid confusion better cover crops nonwoven.A week and a half shoots appear.
If the beds, planted with peas to make extensive (40-45 cm) between rows, then they can sow lettuce and radishes.Peas are also grown in the tree trunks of apple trees, if there is enough light.To do this, pour the fertile soil to a height of 10-12 cm.
Peas - moisture-loving culture.With a lack of moisture in his fall flowers, and ovaries.Up to flowering plants watered once a week, and during flowering, when the soil should not dry at all, - twice.
Do not forget to loosen the aisle, especially after a heavy watering or heavy rains on the soil crust formed.
peas to bring a great harvest, it is necessary to provide firm support to the plant.This is especially true of tall varieties.The most convenient way to make a support in the form of wire mesh attached to the stakes of 2 m.
Vegetable peas, of course, not as decorative as the rank and sweet peas, but he is able to decorate the gazebo and a balcony or terrace and creategreen wings and tapestries.
If the fall of the soil is well fertilized, feed peas is likely to be required.Exception - cold spring, when it is necessary to make nitrogen fertilizer.Legumes enrich the soil with nitrogen - their roots develop nodules in which nitrogen-fixing bacteria live.But the nodules are formed when the soil is already warmed up.So a little help peas still have.To do this, a solution of mullein 1 kg per 10 liters of water with 1 tbsp.l.nitrophosphate.
Approximately a month after mass flowering can harvest Peas refers to the so-called mnogosborovym cultures.Fruiting period lasts 35-40 days.Blades peas harvested in a day or two.The first to ripen lower beans.During the season (when walking under the conditions and appropriate care) you can collect up to 4 kg per 1 sq.m.
When the crop is harvested, the tops are cut off and lay in the compost pile, and plowed the roots or just cut the remaining green mass and buried it in the ground.This green manure could replace the manure and compost, it improves soil fertility and improves its structure.
pea varieties are divided into dining rooms, canneries and universal.From the dining room prepared meals, soups, side dishes, made out of tin canned "green peas", and of the universal - and then, and more.
Early (45-60 days after the appearance of mass shoots): Avola, Alpha, Golden Eagle, Vera Voronezh green, vegetable 76, Premium Early Gribovsky 11 Amber.
Medium (60-80 days after the appearance of mass shoots) Adagumsky, Viola, Ding, Emerald, winner of the T-33, a fragment Havsky pearls.
late (more than 80 days after the appearance of mass shoots): Atlanta, Sunrise, Diabetes 2, Perfection 653, Late-enhanced brain.