Royal protege.

By Admin | Garden, Garden
21 May 2016

Among the ancient name was the word "kryzhak."From it happened modern name - gooseberries

Gooseberries

Lighting - love of light

Soil - easy - and srednesuglinistoj

Watering - can not tolerate excessive moisture and high standing of the groundwater, resistant to drought, needs watering schedule.

Hardiness - a fair and good.

Decorative - exclusive

Diseases and pests - sferoteka, septoria spot, gooseberry moth, yellow gooseberry sawfly.

Reproduction - seedlings, cuttings.


In the Nordic countries, with their cool climate prolific gooseberries since time immemorial has been the main dessert and wine culture.In the absence of grape farmers Netherlands, Scandinavian Vikings, Scottish warriors and knights of the Baltic countries invigorate gooseberry wine, infused with borage leaves.In England, prickly bushes began to closely engaged in the reign of Henry VIII.King polygamist gooseberry loved no less than women, and welcomed its extension in British gardens.The British and now produced wine

from unripe gooseberries.Russia has always loved the "royal" or emerald, gooseberry jam, juice, which resembles a tear, and berries - precious stones.

Few crops can compete with gooseberries in a variety of color, shape, size and taste of berries.One only has its varieties, according to various estimates, from 1500 to 4900. ripe gooseberry flavors - plum, grape, raspberry;palette of colors - from pale green, almost white to dark purple, almost black.There are varieties of berries with brick-red color with an orange tinge, has dark purple berry with a waxy coating.The size and weight of the fruit is also unique: at the most large-fruited varieties of English, they weigh up to 40-50 g and reach the size of a ripe plum.So the hero of Chekhov's story "Gooseberries", which was "tough and sweet," was not able to select the appropriate grade, even a lifetime, and dreamed of the berries in their own garden plot.

And, frankly, the conditions of Central Russia are not conducive to the cultivation of large-European varieties.The reasons - their weak winter hardiness and susceptibility to a disease like sferoteka.Nevertheless, enough is now displayed large-fruited, yield, resistance to cold and disease Russian varieties derived from European and North American breeding material.

site selection and site preparation

Gooseberries love of light, it should be planted in open sunny areas protected from strong winds.It responds well to soil fertility.Just can not stand waterlogging (rots root collar), much better reconciled with the temporary drought.He does not like ones groundwater - it is desirable that their level was not closer than 1.5 meters from the ground;If the groundwater are higher than 0.8 m, it is necessary to plant a bush on a dirt podsypku-pad height of 0.3-0.5 m and 0.8-1.0 m wide.

If free space in the area is small, it is possibleGooseberry place between the young fruit trees, but the distance from the trees to shrubs should be at least 2 m. You can also put a gooseberry in the border area or along a fence - so that planting defended by buildings and fences at least 1.5 m.

gooseberry prefers light- and medium-loamy soils.If the soil is sandy loam on the site, or heavy clay, it is necessary to add clay or sand respectively.Acidification of the soil, he does not like.If the acid value (pH) of more than 5.5, then the landing introduced lime - not less than 200 g per 1 sq.m.

Earth at the landing site should be free of weeds, especially perennial: wheat grass, sow-thistle, dandelion.Well, if in place before planting gooseberries grown vegetables - in this case, the soil is not clogged with weeds and fertilize.

undesirable plant gooseberries where once grew currants, gooseberries and raspberries, the soil is heavily depleted, and accumulated pests and diseases common to these cultures, be sure to snap up "newcomer."

Grades

Early

(maturing in Moscow July 7-13)

Spring.Dessert (1) • From zelenoyagodnyh - the large-fruited.Ripe berry crumble quickly, so you need to remove them in time.Thorns, spines little harvest easily.Resistant to sferoteke, hardly damaged gooseberry moth.Hardy.

Jubilee (2) • The variety gives large amber-yellow berries.Vysokosamoploden almost does not need pollinators.Very scratchy - spikes rare but thin and sharp.Hardy, sredneustoychiv to sferoteke, gooseberry moth hardly damaged.

Pink 2 (3) • Pryamorosly strong bush.Berries are large.Sredneustoychiv sferoteke to require protection against moth.

Russian Yellow (4) • Large berries amber-yellow sweet.By sferoteke stable gooseberry moth damaged slightly.Winter hardiness is medium.Samoplodnye good.The universal pollinator for other varieties of gooseberries.

of medium

(maturing in Moscow July 18-24)

Kaptivator (5) • Berries brownish-pink color, pear-shaped, presnovato-sweet taste with a "gingerbread" flavor.Sredneraskidisty bush, branches slaboshipovatye.Resistant to sferoteke and moth.Winter hardiness is medium.

Gentle (6) • Krupnoploden and slaboshipovat.Berries are light pink, long may hang on the bush, without losing quality.Thick-skinned.Resistant to sferoteke and moth.Hardy.Samoplodnye good.


Landing

optimum planting time gooseberry bare-root - the middle of September - early October.Buy seedlings better advance - a week or two.This should be done in specialized nurseries and companies with a proven track record.

root system of the seedling should have 3-5 woody skeletal root length of 10 cm and developed fibrous roots.Aerial parts of seedlings, enough of a yearling escape - but the two-year seedlings should have 2-3 to escape a length of about 30 cm.

When transporting saplings bare-root need to dip the roots in a clay mash and wrap a wet burlap.

gooseberries are planted in pre-prepared round hole diameter of 0.5 m and a depth of 0.5 m.

When digging pits fertile (top) layer was discarded on the same side, the underlying - on the other.Then 2/3 of the mass of the fertile layer of manure added to a bucket (can be fresh) or compost, 200-250 g of complex mineral fertilizers or 150-200 g of superphosphate, 40-60 g of potassium sulfate.The whole was mixed and filled into approximately half of the pit.The remaining 1/3 of the fertile layer is poured on top mound.After the mixture settles in the pit (1-2 weeks), start planting.

Seedling put on the mound, straighten the roots, poured the remainder of the ground so that the root collar was recessed by 5-7 cm. Then trample down the ground around the bush, well shed and mulch humus.Shorten the shoots, leaving 5-7 cm above the ground to plant a better branch.

Care

Gooseberries vysokourozhaen.Under favorable conditions, and proper care from one bush can collect 10-15 kg of berries.

Crop

Every year emerged from basal shoots left 3-5 best arranged uniformly, the rest are cut to ground level.It should also remove much podmerzshie, sick and damaged branches.In mature plants cut branches over 6-8 years of age - they are not so abundant fruit and berries on them shallow.

Loosening

soil loose 1 every 2-3 weeks to prevent soil crusting, suppress weeds, retain moisture and access of air to the roots.It is particularly important to maintain the soil in this state the first 2-3 years after planting.Depth loosening - no more than 10-12 cm, it may damage the root system.

And you can just zamulchirovat soil around - at the rate of one bucket of peat (or other organic matter) on a bush.When mulching black film to do cross-shaped cuts for fertilizer and irrigation.In the autumn the film is removed, the soil dug in the radius of the crown.

Watering

Gooseberries not like the excess moisture and drought brings easy - if it is not too long.But when a long drought, especially in the crucial period of growth, it should be watered.The first watering period -in formation of ovaries (the second half of May - early June).The second - during the formation and ripening berries (second-third decade of June).To enhance root growth and prepare for the winter needs the so-called vlagozaryadochny watering (third decade of September - early October).

Gooseberries can not be watered from a watering can or hose - on the base of the bush land is washed away, and the root collar zamokaet.It is necessary to dig shrubs, hollow circle in the so-called "storm" area, that is where the bush ends krona and supply water to it - 30 liters per bush.

Feeding

If planting pits were tucked good nutrient mixture, the first two years of feeding can not do.

From the third year, in the autumn digging make fertilizer per 1 sq.m: organic - 4-6 kg phosphorus - 30 g, potash - '20

good fertilizing effect in the first and second decade of June - helps the growth of shoots and ripening berries.Usually it is combined with a curtain.Mullein plant in 3-4 volumes of water and water the plants of suspension - 1 bucket on a bush.Mineral supplements do so: on one bush - 10 liters of water in which is dissolved 10 g of nitrogen, 15 g and 20 g of potassium phosphate fertilizers.

Diseases and pests

Gooseberry is particularly vulnerable to disease and two - the American powdery mildew (sferoteka) and septariose (white spots).

than other insect pests plague him gooseberry moth and yellow gooseberry sawfly.

Most modern varieties resistant to sferoteke gooseberry.However, the disease is selective a strongly affects young plants.Therefore, they need protection - drug treatment "Topaz", "Vectra" or "strobe" (dose and method of administration indicated on the package).

first spraying - after the opening of leaves, in buds.The second - in 10-14 days.Varieties resistant septariose absolutely not.Before flowering and after harvest is necessary to process the bushes and the soil beneath them "oxychloride" and "soon" in the autumn necessarily make phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and dig the soil under the bushes.

against moth and sawfly bushes in early spring (after the separation of buds and immediately after flowering) sprayed karbofosom or biologics - or bitoksibatsilinom Lepidocide.In autumn dig the ground under the bushes at a depth of 8-10 cm and spud within a radius of the crown so as to form a dirt cushion height of 10-12 cm. In the spring, two weeks after flowering bushes razokuchivayut.

way

gooseberries found in a large number of pro-vitamin A, vitamin B, biotin, and ascorbic acid - on its content does not concede tons of lemons and oranges.There are also many minerals: potassium salts, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus.It is particularly useful for diseases of the heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, anemia and obesity.In winter and spring, to make up for the seasonal lack of vitamins in the body, it is recommended to use the jam, jam, juice and stewed gooseberries.



«Gardener» №7-2006