Irrigation methods

By Admin | Garden, Garden
21 May 2016

example, light soils with a high content of sand or lime, unlike the clay to dry out very quickly, so in a drought watering should be done more often.

no secret that the most abundant vegetation is always concentrated in the water.It was she, as well as its quality and irrigation system are essential for normal functioning of the plant.After all, only water helps plants produce nutrients from the soil.

also regulates the temperature of the water in the plant, so even at high ambient temperatures the plants own temperature does not change.

important role in the life of plants, in addition to water, also plays ambient humidity.When the fog it is 100%.If the air is dry, begins increased water evaporation from the soil and leaf surface, which can lead to withering plants.It becomes clear that the lower the humidity, the more frequent watering is required.

usually waterings set deadlines for changing color of leaves or partial wilting during the hottest hours.Also taken into account, and soil moisture.If

the compressed lump of soil in his hand thrown on compacted ground from a height of about chest level, it breaks down, it's time to irrigation.

moisture content in the soil is easy to check and use the excavated hole.To find out whether the next watering can as the soil at a depth of 20-30 cm.

With insufficient irrigation on the soil surface appears hard crust, so the plant will be forced to form a lateral surface roots to get to the top, moist soil.

Gardeners should be aware that prolonged drought alternating with abundant irrigation does not bring them any benefit green friends.

also need to know that one good rain equals one watering and after a small rain can push back the deadline for a week watering.

known that in the period of intensive growth, and during bud break, flowering and growth of shoots plants are particularly in need of watering.

generally used for watering irrigation network, the location of which is planned in advance during the development of the site.The plan of the site, be sure to define the main road, which must be connected to the access.Pipelines are usually taken to lay the border area.Proper planning of the land and planting facilitate their care, including watering.

Watering can be done in various ways.Choosing the most appropriate depends on climatic conditions, topography, irrigation facilities and equipment available.

In modern conditions use the following method of irrigation: surface, sprinkler, subsurface drip.

On the surface irrigation water is supplied by an open (and channels allocated to irrigated plots in the open olivnoy network.

When irrigation sprinklers water is supplied by a closed pipeline, followed by distribution

subsurface watering is carried out from the pipes laid in the soil with holes.

With drip irrigation ensures a slow flow of water into the development of the root system of the plant.

subsurface irrigation

subsoil irrigation have many advantages. Firstly, it saturates the soil air, which, in turn, promotes better nutrition of the root system of plants,and hence improve the yield. Secondly, there is a dry top layer, which does not allow the seeds to sprout weeds. Thirdly, dry the top layer of moisture lowers the surface air layer, which is the prevention of fungal diseases of many cultures.This, in turn, will reduce the use of chemicals.Fourth, the subsurface irrigation allows you to perform the work on site at the time of watering as the topsoil is not moistened.

intrasoil When irrigation water is distributed or the total irrigated area, or a certain area of ​​porous polyethylene pipes (humidifiers) diameter 20 ... 40 mm, thickness of 1.5 ... 2 mm, a length of 200 mm.They are doing a series of round holes of 2-3 mm diameter or slotted hole length 5-10 mm, width 1-2 mm.

depth laying humidifiers is directly dependent on the depth of tillage.Usually they are placed at a depth of 20-30 cm. The distance between them should be 40-90 cm.



intrasoil humidifier: 1 - tube-humidifier;2 - holes in the tube wall;3 - polyethylene film;4 - production of water into the soil

water pressure supplied to the humidifier must not be large (0.2-0.5 m).Its consumption in this case will be 0.1-0.3 l / s, although the best survival rate of seedlings and friendly sprouting small-seeded crops can sometimes create the water pressure so that it rose to the surface of the soil.But it is quite possible the emergence of fountains and as a result, soil erosion and crusting after watering.As a result, worsen air permeability of the top layer of the soil and increase its draining.

for subsurface irrigation it is possible to use household water as well as to defend the livestock waste.Moreover, contamination of the environment and the plant by this method watering occurs: the microorganisms in the soil, neutralize pathogenic microbes in water.

If intrasoil irrigation used muddy water, at the beginning of satisfied settlers.Also, for such is not suitable irrigation water containing a large amount of suspended solids.They settle in humidifiers and significantly shorten the life of the irrigation system.To prevent clogging of pipes and debris particles of soil, water must be supplied through a mesh or sand filters.

special attention when installing humidifiers should be paid to the type of soil.For example, in loamy soils the distance between the tubes will be greater than in sandy loam.

on the distance between the humidifiers also greatly influenced by irrigation rates.Accordingly, the larger irrigation rates, the further away from each other should be located humectants.

To select the name you want for your site distance between the humidifier, a few days after watering dig the 2-3 places along the length of the tubes.So you can determine whether the selected standards watering, depth bookmarks humidifiers and how far spread moisture into the depth and sideways.

quantity of irrigation standards as determined by the dark spots after watering, formed on the surface of the soil where laid humidifiers.

to water escaping through the holes in the tubes, distributed upwards and sideways, not in depth, should be used ribbon of polyethylene film of width 20-30 cm, are placed below the tubes.

subsurface irrigation is widely used in greenhouses.There's humidifiers are to be installed at a depth of 25 cm the ramp along the shelves.Bias is needed to displace the air with water.If the width of the shelves - 80 cm, and a sufficiently humectant, and broader need two, with the distance therebetween of 80 cm.

in greenhouses and greenhouses humidifiers can be used for irrigation as well as for heating.This will enhance the effect of subsurface irrigation.Heating by means of hot water or steam.It helps to regulate the temperature regime of soil-ground layer of warm air and thus prevents freezing of plants.

Drip irrigation (microirrigation)

Drip irrigation allows to provide plants with moisture in the required amounts, as well as save water.With this method of irrigation material costs are significantly reduced.When

size irrigation water is fed as separate streams or droplets having a diameter of 1 ... 2 mm, and moistens the soil at a certain portion mainly by capillary action.Distribution of water occurs both in the vertical and horizontal direction.

microirrigation applied in areas with steep gradients and rugged terrain.Drip irrigation is appropriate for any type of soil, but it is not always effective where ground water is easily overlooked.Widely used microirrigation in areas with limited water resources.

Droppers are an essential element of drip irrigation systems.They are installed on the pipe and carry the water supply to the roots of plants.



scheme irrigation system drip irrigation system: 1 - distribution piping;2 - irrigation pipe;3 - drip

industry produces a wide variety of types of droppers.They have a device for reducing the water pressure in the network, as well as the outlets.A drip on the soil surface a zone of continuous hydration.With the spread of water deep moisturizing expanding.For a set number of droppers and at what distance from each other - it depends on the soil type, the size and age of the plants, and the density of planting.

not be too hard with your hands to make the heat pipe with droppers simple type.The diameter of the pipe should be 10-20 mm.It strengthens the dropper at certain distances.Dropper effusion from a tube diameter of 1 ~ 2 mm.The tube on the pipeline is made in the form of a spiral.

speed and volume of water flowing from the drip decreased with increasing length of the spiral.

micro-irrigation systems can be elevated and elevating.When an underground location drippers via diversion feeders are displayed on the surface.Irrigation pipe is laid at a depth of 45-50 cm.

pipelines located above ground, placed on the ground in the near-wellbore zone along the garden rows.

In micro-irrigation, there are several drawbacks.Firstly, a fast drip clogging due to the presence of various impurities in the water and salts.Secondly, the occurrence of the need to regulate the flow of water evenly each drip over the entire length of the pipeline.

To prevent clogging of drippers, water for irrigation, you must first defend.For the same purpose at the beginning of the irrigation pipeline arrange strainer.

Instead irrigation pipe with dripper drip irrigation can be applied to porous humidifiers.The pore size of humidifiers should be 50 ... 100 microns.

With drip irrigation may produce Fertilizer watering.Fertilization in this case is carried out locally.

To produce the fertilizer in the irrigation network, you must install podkormschik fertilizer.There are two ways to supply the concentrated fertilizer in:

1) Induction.This method consists in the fact that at the connection podkormschika create a pressure drop.

2) Injection.When this method is injected in fertilizer metering pump.

If fertilization does not exclude the possibility of their interaction with the components of the water used for irrigation.For example, if you make a natural water with increased stiffness phosphate fertilizers, it can lead to the formation of deposits in the pipes.

Irrigation sprinkler

irrigation - is artificially created by the rain that moistens the capillary action of the soil layer, the air above the ground and above-ground parts of plants.In addition, when sprinkling is no deterioration of the structure of irrigated soil.Another advantage of this method of irrigation is not too much material costs.

This method is used in areas with shallow groundwater, that is where there is a danger of their recovery.It is advisable to apply irrigation in areas c steep slope and difficult terrain and sandy soils.

Given the absorption capacity of the soil, regulate the intensity of the rain.For example, heavy soils - 0,1..0,2 mm / min, for medium - 0.2 ... 0.3, for light - 0.5 ... 0.8.In order not to disturb the soil structure and avoid the formation of puddles, raindrops should be no more than 1 ... 2 mm.Large drops leaves nailed to the ground, and they are covered with a layer of dirt.To avoid this, it is necessary to reduce the diameter of the nozzle.

Irrigation Spray irrigation system is easy to use, fairly economical and improves crop yields.

to lay yourself on the site irrigation system for irrigation, will need pipe diameter mm valves and nozzles.If the system is modular, necessarily required and fittings.But such a system may be welded.

best to pave the main line in the center of the plot.And how to install dispensers - it hangs primarily on the area of ​​watered area.The garden sprayers are usually placed on the ground under trees, and in the garden - 80 cm from the ground.

very simple device to serve as a regular watering sprinkler rubber hose bent into the ring.In it every 10-15cm forged holes 4-6 mm.The ends of the hose are put on the tube length, 5-10 cm, screwed to the tee against each other.On the segment tube is inserted into the tee and connected to a pipeline installed water flow adjustment valve.



hose bent into a ring

At present, the industry produces sprinklers various designs and an extensive range of sprinklers and nozzles that provide good quality rain.But using them can be a problem: for their effective work necessary water pressure at least 2-2.5 atm, and that is not always feasible.

Dozhdevalnik "Segner wheel".This installation includes a horizontal pipe with two spray heads at the ends, and a short vertical pipe, which connects the horizontal hose, a supply water.Stand on which the all the details, based on the skis.

dozhdevalnika When the water is sprayed from the rotary tube by a few meters.



«Segner wheel": 1 - spray head;2 -sharnirnaya tube;3 - fitting for connecting hose;4 - support


sprinklers "Snail".The mechanism of this setup is quite simple.With the water supply hose is carried to the nozzle through the pipe at a tangent.It streams of water swirl and "rain flow" taking the form of an umbrella out of the hole.Installing sprays water around in a radius of 1-2 meters. After watering a land "snail" was transferred to the other.Besides the usual sprinkling applied and fine (aerosol).It is used for plants under adverse climatic conditions such as droughts and dry winds overhead.



sprinkler «snail»


When sprinkling aerosol droplets produced 400 ... 600 microns.They are well kept on the leaves of plants.The best effect is achieved with frequent or continuous distribution of water on irrigated plots.

used to spray irrigation nozzle and dispersants different designs.

fine sprinkling equipment includes a mast height of 9.12 m and a turning rod with dispersants.Rod operates on the principle weathervane, that is, depending on the strength and direction of wind {Fig.60).

surface irrigation

surface irrigation is used for flushing saline soils, as well as if the absorbency of the soil is poor.Thanks to him, it is possible to create a reserve of moisture in the soil, and reducing the amount of irrigation.This is the most important in regions with hot climates.

to conduct surface irrigation, you must first lay in the garden of a metal pipe.The main pipe having the largest diameter, is placed across the slope portion.

smaller diameter pipes from the main paved in the middle rows.And already they are moving away from the branch pipe directly into the bowl well and checks.



fine sprinkling system

pipe connection in a pipeline made of autogenous welding.To regulate the flow of water should mount cranes a little further from the connection pipes.

in the garden instead of the pipe is better to lay deep furrows.