suited for growing grapes southern or south-western slopes, which effectively protect plants from cold winds and which are not late spring meltwater.The best option - landing between buildings on the south side so that the plants are placed in a sort of pocket.But the grapes should be planted no closer than one meter from the wall.
pave the way
Grapes grow well only on the light, well-heated soils.In northern conditions in heavy clay soils of the grapes, as well as other vines (Actinidia, lemongrass), may "languish" for years, giving a slight increase, in the absence of a crop.Do not tolerate acidic soils and plants.Absolutely unsuitable marshy soil.
Before planting grapes on a constant, determine the depth of groundwater.If the water is close (1m), increase the soil up to 1.5 m. For this you ne
After preparing the soil determine the soil reaction (pH), it can be done with litmus paper.Most members of the family Vinogradov, and not just cultural grape grows well and develops only on soils with neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
before spring planting plants in the open ground in early autumn already start to prepare the soil and drainage system.If the area is dominated by cold and heavy clay, often occurring at a depth of 20 cm, you need to carefully prepare the soil.In this case, it makes no sense to dig the groove and fill them with fertile soil, because eventually they will still swim the clay and the soil settles and thickens.It is therefore necessary to use drainage, which would not allow roots to penetrate into the cold layer of clay, and will contribute to a better heating of the upper soil layer.To do this, remove the top layer of 2-3 bayonet spade and indentations pour gravel, sand or gravel layer of 5-10 cm. Then, to the fertile top layer of soil, add lime, peat, rotted manure and sand.The amount and ratio of these components depends on the structure and acidity of the soil fertility.
You can do a simple way.First, dig up the topsoil, then put him seedling roots and gently sprinkle the ground.After watering seedlings sprinkle around for another two or three buckets of loose fertile soil.During the summer, in a radius of two meters around the seedlings periodically fill up the ground to a height of 10-15 cm. Of artificial embankments plants grow better and bear fruit.Since the autumn necessarily make slaked lime at the rate of 200-400 g per 1 sq.m.
On sandy, poor areas of organic compounds into the soil of manure, humus, peat.On sandy soils with deep groundwater can be used for planting the groove depth of 60-80 cm, which is filled with autumn blend of compost (humus) and peat thoroughly mixed with lime in a ratio of 10: 10: 1.
be planted in open ground plants or greenhouse in early spring is best, right after as the ground thawed and warms.Depending on the weather, area and structure of the soil the plants are planted in late April - mid-May.Do not be late with planting because the grapes planted too late to die because of the short growing season.Fall planting in our climatic conditions is not practical.
After release of seedlings from the store, inspect them carefully, removing dead skin with the help of the secateurs of shoots and roots.Do not leave the plants bare-root in the wind or the sun.Before planting the seedlings shoots cut into two or three buds, then the upper part of shoots put in melted paraffin wax, or garden var.In the landing pit pour half a bucket of compost or soil nutrient.The roots of seedlings for a few minutes soak in the "mash", which is easily prepared, mixed in a bucket of water two parts clay and one part Mullein rotted to the consistency of liquid sour cream.The depth of planting in heavy clay soils do not exceed 20 cm, on sandy - 50 cm. After planting, the soil around the seedlings gently tamp and pour warmed to 30-40 ° C water.The upper part of seedlings okuchte.As the regrowth of young shoots, make sure that their number does not exceed two, the others break out.
Green seedlings grown from cuttings indoors or in a greenhouse, planted in the ground until early June with a clod of earth into previously prepared hole, which also add humus.It should not be at the same time add fertilizer and lime, as the young roots can burn.
distance between seedlings depends on several factors: the variety of growth, the forming method of the bush, the place (outdoors or greenhouse), as well as the structure and availability of soil nutrients.It is usually from 1 to 2.5 m between rows - from 1.5 to 2 m. In this case the bushes should be arranged with the south to north.
In the early summer around seedlings set of support, for which we can use thin stakes or small, lightweight trellis of two wires.With the growth of shoots tied up to stakes with twine.In the first year seedlings require careful maintenance: Regularly remove weeds and stepchildren, and the soil loose.
fertilize and do not overdo WATER
In the northern parts of the soil are moistened and provided with nutrients, fertilizing is needed mainly on heavy clay or, conversely, sandy soils.The best thing about fertilizer - rotted manure, which is made in the fall.Nitrogen fertilizer is generally not recommended to use - they are delaying the growth of shoots.As the use of fertilizers with a neutral reaction peat, compost, wood ash, bird droppings, slurry.The fertilizer application rates depend on the structure, soil fertility, as well as the age of the plants.Young shrubs require more frequent fertilizing than adults.
good as a feeding bird droppings.It was diluted twice with water, soaked in a warm place for two weeks, then again diluted with water (1: 5) and then fed plants.Very high quality fertilizer that improves soil structure - compost, which can be cooked from food and plant debris, mixed in different combinations and proportions with peat, manure, hay.
Grapes and responsive to foliar application during the growing season.Very useful foliar feeding of 0.1% boric acid - it will prevent the shedding of ovaries.Treatment is carried out twice: before flowering and during growth of berries.
Excessive watering in late summer is a prolonged shoot growth, which can last until the autumn frosts.Such nevyzrevshie (green) shoots are easily damaged by even minor frosts, they are not able to winter.By any means necessary to restrict the access of water to plants, especially in the rainy summer.
opened on time
discovery of plants after winter - one of the most critical moments of growing grapes.In no case should not hurry to open the grapes after the first warm days.Some varieties and wild species with the first warming (up to +15 ° C) start to "cry" and their buds.Often, after the thaw in April or early May, there are frosts, which destroy the bloom on the vine eyes.Small frozen in May (to -6 ° C) can damage not only the swollen kidney, but also wood.Therefore, prolonged cold spring is more favorable to plants than the rough, warm, but with alternating fever and night frosts.Open vine after winter, when average daily temperatures close to normal, it is necessary at the end of April - early May (in the Leningrad region).After the opening of the bush land is useful to handle 3-5% solution of iron or copper sulfate.This will not only prevent fungal diseases, but also delay the blooming buds.
CLASSES FOR SAINT PETERSBURG
Wine number 3 - an old variety with small black berries used to make juices and wines.The skin is durable.Well winters without shelter for the winter.
Chasselas Ramming - early-ripening table grade with average light-green berries.The skin is durable.The variety is very resistant to fungal diseases.Hibernates under the snow.Matures even in cold years.
Khasan Bowes - strong-wine variety with small dark blue berries.It begins to ripen in late August.Resistant to fungal diseases, winters without shelter.
Khasan sweet - strong-early variety, the berries with a bluish bloom.The skin is thin, strong, well separated from the pulp.The taste - sweet and sour.He begins to ripen in early September.Quality wine.
Ilya of Murom - interspecific hybrid produced in the Vladimir region amateur growers.The berries are medium, greenish-pink when fully ripe dark pink.The flesh is juicy and sweet.In protected areas within the boundaries of St. Petersburg can spend the winter without shelter.
Nutmeg (North nutmeg 7) -mezhvidovoy hybrid with small (5-7 mm) red or dark red berries.The skin is durable.The flesh is juicy, sour-sweet, pleasant.It ripens in mid - late September.Winters without shelter.
North - frost resistant cultivar with a medium dark blue berries.The skin is durable.The flesh is juicy, sweet, sour.In the precincts of St. Petersburg winters without shelter.
Jubilee Novgorod (№17 TSGL) - sort of got its name from the annual aging in the conditions of the Novgorod region.Silnorosly bush berries are medium, green, on the sunny side - yellow.The pulp is juicy with a slight taste of Isabella.Hibernates under a light shelter of twigs or dry leaves.It ripens in the middle - the end of September.
Among the new products - very early frost-grade (not freeze at -35 ° C): Amur Potapenko 1, Neretinsky, Amur-sky-Potapenko 2, Amethyst, Amur Potapenko-3, 4-Amur Potapenko and monastery.
CLASSES FOR MOSCOW
Agate Don.Variety of early ripening bush silnorosly, black berry, big, with a dense skin.Shoots ripen well if bush was not overworked.Resistant to mildew and botrytis.
Russian Amber.Very early variety with large (up to 500 g) clusters.Berries white, the sun - Amber, peel durable.It has a very subtle pleasant aroma of muscat.Sort frost.
Muscat Odessa.Very early variety with medium bunches (280 g).Berry is white, the skin is thin, fleshy pulp with a muscat flavor.Average height bush, shoots ripen well.Frost.
Rusven - sort of very early ripening.The clusters are medium and large (up to 400 g).Berries white, with tan in the sun, the skin is thin, fleshy pulp with a delicate muscatel flavor.Silnorosly bush, shoots ripen well.Frost.
Codreanca - a variety of early ripening.The clusters are large, black berry, big.Peel firm, meaty flesh.Frost.
are very good in Moscow and Rusbol, sustainable Dokuchaeva, Blueberry, August, Alekuch, Braz, Braz-1, 3-Braz, Kesha, Senkuch, Brown Muscat.
grapes in the organic garden
- Attract beneficial insects.Planting yarrow, catnip, rudbeckia and purple penstemona best suited to attract ladybugs, lacewings and other beneficial insects.
- Plant ground cover.
Green manure fix atmospheric nitrogen and accumulate it in the soil.Cereal inhibit the growth of vines green manure, which contributes to the maturing of the shoots.In addition, they relieve you of weeds and attract beneficial insects.
Will the VINE?
temperature that will stand without damaging the kidney matured:
Euro-Asian varieties - 18-20 ° C
varieties with increased resistance - 22 - 24 ° C
interspecific varieties - 24 - 35 ° C
North American varieties- 30 ° C
Amur grapes - 40-45 ° C
varieties for Southern
Selection of grapes depends on the purpose of cultivation.So first decide what you give preference to: grapes as a tasty and useful berries or as a decorative element gazebo.
In the first case, better to give preference to classes, the clusters are stored in the bushes for a long time without loss of palatability, indicating that their keeping quality during winter storage.Photographed in dry weather Muscat Amber.Delight and Moldova are stored up to 40 days.If you are not going to keep the grapes, and want to make him the wine, removing cluster directly from the bush, the Plant varieties simpler: Isabella, Lydia, Doina, Aurora Magaracha.And if you intend to entwine grape arbor to shelter in the summer of her from the sun, note the difference in strength grades of growth, and hence the length of the vine.Most grape varieties dlinnopletistyh never removed from the gazebo, so it should be neukryvnyh.Preference was given to varieties of the following group: 1 Keiyu, Moldova, Biruintsa, Russian early, Agate and Don is very limited -Plevenustoychivy (because of its propensity to loss of kidney nevyzrev-shih lozinkah).
Record size berries (18 g) yield varieties: Arcadia, Biruintsa, Kesha 1, Atlanta Zaporozhye, Original.And an unusual form of berries - ovate and papillary - Original differ, Odessa souvenir and ladies fingers.
have variety in the sun Original berries have an intense dark pink color, and in the shadow of cherry or walnut - yellow and salmon.
As for the taste of berries, you can choose between Muscat, Isabelle-nym (Watermelon) lidy nym (pineapple), Solanaceae (variety type Magaracha) and herbaceous (Straseni, ladies fingers).