Formal and informal gardens

By Admin | Landscape
26 May 2016
Art gardening acquaintance for a long time.The aesthetic views of antiquity cultivated garden area contrasted with the wild.This approach is preserved for centuries.

After the fall of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages art ascetic homestead was further developed thanks to the monasteries.The purpose of detention in the gardens of the monastery was both practical and spiritual.The monks cultivated vegetables and fruits - for food and medicinal plants - for the healing.Plant and ornamental plants.Monks believed ennobling role of labor and enjoy gardening.

Reformation period forever changed public attitudes and the fate of Europe.It enriches and garden art.In the XV century.England were "invented" nodal cady and parterres, who conquered Europe and stayed at the peak of garden fashion a century.Nodal gardens were a strict rectangular borders or flower beds framed by low, neatly trimmed evergreen hedges.The inner space between the hedges filled with patterns of flowers, neatly cropped topiary or colored g
ravel, sand and seashells.

In the XVII century.appeared first professional (not the court) garden designers who worked on the order for monarchs, aristocrats and the nouveaux riches, sought as soon as possible to join in the "noble" society.History has preserved for us the names of Andre Le Notre in France, George London and Henry Wise in England.In its park and garden design they used fashion while French, Dutch and Italian styles.French Style repeated pomp and splendor of Versailles.Dutch - more discreet, intimate and homely - is well suited for small holdings, and especially liked the British.Features Italian style was characterized by numerous ornate buildings and statues.

In the XVII century.It disappeared from the gardens features a religious and literary symbolism in the design of the notes added idleness and flirting.The gardens have become a symbol of wealth, power and education of their respective owners.Typical features lush gardens were straight wide avenues lined symmetrically trimmed trees, stone balustrades, fountains, water channels, statues and neat topiary in wooden tubs.In the flower beds and curbs too strict formalism prevailed: flowers clearly divided by type and color, higher - in the middle, lower - on the edges, ornate pattern repeated many times, and the beds themselves were framed low evergreen hedges.Not a single tree or shrub could not avoid haircuts.Everywhere he reigned triumph of geometry.



At the beginning of the XVIII century.virtually all mastered park space turned strictly formalized and pushed into a rigid framework.In response to this demand began to emerge in a more natural design.The art is becoming increasingly common classicism, inspired by fresh ideas of liberalism and the Enlightenment.

new trend in garden fashion instructing an open perspective and preservation of the natural terrain.For the first time the concepts of cultural landscapes and landscape design.Under the slogan "nature of higher art 'in European fashion became a natural and romantic" English "style with hills, ponds, endless lawns and scattered here and there clumps of trees.Of aristocratic gardens and parks disappeared straight avenues, raised flower beds and the formal parterres, ornate buildings, mazes, hedges, topiary and any symmetry - anything that looks "done."

English landscape style in the first place associated with the names of Lancelot Brown and Humphrey Repton, Alexander Pope and Richard Payne Knight, who brought the idea to an extreme degree of naturalness.He added to his works, landscapes scattered in disarray, and the huge stones used dead trees, opens the mind to give a great charm.Some thought to find the most outstanding designer romantic era, others accused him of ill-kusii.At the same time, for the first time developed an interest in deliberately running, wild gardens, which, however, at the end of the XVIII century.They looked much more "combed" than modern wild gardens.



the beginning of the XIX century.Gardens were not the property of the elite own plots of land were made available to various segments of society.In Britain, gardening was truly a national passion.Urban residents cared for front gardens and courtyards at their homes.In the suburbs were the famous cottage gardens, created a whole new trend subsequently garden fashion.In practical cottage gardens grew familiar trees, shrubs and the "village" of flowers, interspersed with beds of vegetables are grown in the cabbage, beets, turnips and beans.The style of these gardens more reminiscent of traditional Russian household farms or garden plots.

Selecting ornamental plants at the time extended before our eyes."Hunters for plants", the first of which was Francis Masson, traveled to remote corners of the world with scientific expeditions and brought to the Old World copies of previously unknown plants.We create entire theme gardens, imitating one or another region of the world.

At the end of the XIX century.It began a pivotal era in public life when subjected to philosophical ideas of the past reinterpreted.The art of garden design is left on the side of what is happening.At the heart of the garden lay the fashion of the XX century reinterpretation of classics, endless experimentation and pragmatism in accordance with the requirements of the time.

Garden "room»

At the beginning of the XX century.in architecture and applied arts originated aesthetic direction that joined the elements of formal and informal styles.The gardens in the style of Art & amp;Crafts is a chain of spaces (known as the "garden rooms"), separated by high hedges.And each such "room" was made in a unique manner.Informal style plantings create a sense of rebellious riot of colors and textures, a prisoner in a strict green facet of formal hedges.The concept of "garden rooms" can be easily transferred into most gardens, regardless of their location and weather conditions (photo 5).

Two of the most famous classic examples of the style Art & amp;Crafts - Garden estate Hidcote Manor (Gloucestershire County, England), created by Lowe-Ransom Johnston and castle garden Sissinghurst (Kent, England), created by writer Vita Sackville-West.The manner in which these are full of delightful gardens, considered the epitome of the famous English garden style.

Wild Gardens

important trend XX century.become wild, natural gardens, completely devoid of formalism.The modern idea of ​​natural stands firmly on a foundation of practicality, praising the wild, "Taming but not destroyed by human hand, and the requisite infrastructure for his home."Wild gardens first appeared in Germany and the Netherlands as an experiment in the park design, and soon spread to the European private gardens.They imitate meadows, forests, coastal areas, wetlands or other types of local landscape.

In these gardens using the corresponding wild plants (purchased at garden centers and not dug in the forest), which are the usual conditions of existence.They exist in the garden as well as in vivo: surviving, developing, extending, increasing and decreasing in the population and reflecting the attacks of pests and diseases without the help of man.Local plants provide familiar surroundings, shelter and food for birds and animals, maintaining and preserving the natural diversity of species of flora and fauna.The key idea of ​​the aesthetics of the wild gardens - natural and charming mess in harmony with nature.

now urgent topic of ecology of man and nature, the need to preserve endangered species of flora and fauna.Quickly gaining momentum and the movement of organic.

owners of gardens and garden designers of our time looking at the garden as an extension of a person's home, "outdoor room", in which, as in other parts of the house, takes the active life of the modern family.Increasingly, "Chelsea" and other horticultural exhibitions appear gardens, offices (see photo), gardens, kitchens, gardens, lounges, gardens, open-air gallery.Modern garden - a place of escape from the bustle of business, relaxation, meditation, merge with nature, lots of fun, outdoor activities, experiments, new knowledge, children's games, sports ....

"Outdoor Life" №1-2 / 2007