lighting - light-requiring, makes a penumbra
soil - loose, moist, sandy loam or loamy
Watering - mature trees watering almost do not need, watered only young plants during drought
Diseases and pests - Medvedka, Melolontha, sawflies, thrips, borers, silkworms, fungi Basidiomycetes
In the old days a proverb: "In the pine forest - to pray, to spruce -udavitsya in birch - have fun."Indeed, clean, full of light and air sparse birch, contrasting with the gloomy twilight spruce thickets, - a favorite and familiar look for the residents of the middle band.Birch is widespread in Russia everywhere, from the tundra to the steppe.Although no one "claimed" it in this role, white birch has long been a symbol of our country.Meanwhile, the genus birch (Betula) very numerous and spread around the world.It covers large areas of the Northern Hemisphere - in Europe, Asia and North America.
According to various estimates, there are between 60 to 120 species of birch tree - this tree as biologists sa
Properties and features
Many birches called pioneer trees.It is true: they are the first to colonize burned areas, clearings and abandoned arable lands, forming a young stand.The reason - the extraordinary abundance of light seeds that the wind carries over long distances.In birch number of seeds in good years up to 15 thousand per 1 sq.m soil.
Getting on the ground, the seeds germinate quickly.No less vigorous seedlings are growing and reaching 10 years height of 4-6 m.
Birch undemanding to environmental conditions.Basically, they are light-requiring, but tolerate partial shade.With few exceptions, they are quite winter-hardy, can withstand extreme cold, do not suffer from sudden changes in temperature and frost.They are unpretentious, can grow on dry and stony soils and on wetlands.
Birch in landscape
use of birch in landscape design can be quite varied.Trees are planted in a part of pure and mixed picturesque groups to create dense arrays, drafty groves, alleys along roads or protective wings.The most common birch will be interesting to buketnye landing and exotic species and ornamental forms - in soliternoy, against the background of the lawn.
for large gardens and parks in the landscape style and array-based groups can be a powerful high birch tree with well-developed crown spectacular - Maksimovic, paper, yellow and hung.
in small groups interesting contrast with the unusual combination of birch color or texture of the bark.For example, Daurian and Schmidt (with black or dark brown rough trunks), Manchu, and black cherry (with brownish or reddish-brown bark), as well as useful, Japanese, blue and furry (with a smooth and light crust).Such groups, with a touch of high conifers, especially good at all-round visibility, if they are planted in the center of the lawn.Birch with an unusual crown (naprime Drooping 'Tristis' or' Joungii '.' Weeping with drooping branches) are ideal for the decoration of the waterfront or a stream.
to create bright spots of color can be planted form of 'Purpurea' Betula pendula with reddish foliage.Pyramid-shaped 'Fastigiata' used to create strict ceremonial avenues, or to flank the entry *.
For small gardens, choose small trees - the form 'Joungii' birch!drooping or Karelian birch.They are very attractive in a group planting, in combination with low creeping pine.Dwarf birch species: large-scale planted in rock gardens.
2. Japanese Birch Betula wpomca
3. Birch Erman, or stone Betula ermanii
4. birch Betula pubescens
5. Daurian birch Betula daurica
6. Manchurian birch Betulamandshurica
7. Useful Birch Betula utilis
8. black birch Betula nigra
9. birch, p.Karelian Betula pendula, f.Carelica
Birch - wood extremely useful.Of the various types of produce sawn timber, plywood, furniture, household items.Birch has long been used for weaving.Also, it is obtained from tar, soot and very thin paint.Sweet and plentiful juice ripe birch produced in the spring, at the beginning of sap flow, you can drink it fresh or store it for cooking on the basis of beer, kvass and syrup.
high and therapeutic advantages of birch.Poultice of young birch leaves old folk remedy for the treatment of cardiovascular and joint diseases.Birch went under Chaga is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.Birch buds and leaves are rich in vitamins, oils, bitterness and tannins.
Planting and care
Planting birch trees on the site, you need to remember that they are great "vodohleby."Adult silver birch summer per day from the soil draws an average of 20 buckets of water, which is about 250 liters.
Birch undemanding to soil fertility.They successfully take root in the poor podzolic soils, on solonetz and chernozem obese, heavy loam and sand.
But best of all, they feel at loose, slightly acidic enough humidif United, good humus or sandy loam soils loam composition.
Large birch saplings bare-root even planted at the right time, not always take root.Some of the trees are killed, often wither top.Therefore it is better to buy plants with earthen clod of or in containers.Possible winter landing promorozhennaya lumpy.
landing pit under the birch is charged with a mixture of garden soil, humus, sand;and peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 1.With spring planting of young birch trees in the planting hole is added complex fertilizer (150-200 g).When the autumn planting, which is less preferred, use phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.
birch root system is usually not very deep, growing more in hand than the depth.In some species, it is the surface - and therefore sensitive: to trampling and soil compaction.Do not plant a birch close to the buildings, paved and cobbled paths - growing roots can damage the foundations and communication.
Pests and diseases
birch have a lot of crawling and flying enemies.This primarily Medvedkov Melolontha (better known as chafer), leafy sawflies, thrips, borers and silkworms.Hit it and fungal diseases.However, the serious consequences of the attacks of pests and diseases occur most often in very young or old trees.For example, the leaves of young birch cockchafers may starve clean.And mushrooms - Basidiomycetes (Autumn estimates of location) is very like to settle on the old birches.For prevention is necessary at least once a year to handle trees with insecticides and fungicides.
flank - symmetrical arrangement of any objects on the sides of the central axis of the composition.
Types and forms
Anyone familiar silver birch (Betula pendula), synonymous - White birch (Betula verrucosa).This spectacular tree height of 30 m, with drooping branches and smooth white bark, which darkens with age and crack.
original kind birch - Karelian birch (Betula pendula f. Cardial), pinkish-brown wood which has an unusual texture tortuous.Decorative forms birch: 'Tristis'-a weeping crown,' Gracilis'- with drooping branches and narrow dissected leaves, 'Dalecarlica' and 'Laciniata'-c graceful leaves,' Fastigiata ', with elongated egg-or columns-sighted form of crown, 'Joungii - with smaller leaves and compact umbellate crown going down to the ground,' Purpurea - with dark red or brownish leaves.
birch (Betula pubescens) is very hardy and unpretentious, its range extends far to the north;the only territory where the birch not - the Far East.This species can grow in damp places.Its trunk is white almost to the base and the crown pulled up or stretched out.
most shade-tolerant species - Far ribbed birch (Betula costata) with yellowish bark and woolly birch (Betula lanata) with grayish bark.
In East Asia, many temnokoryh species with a dense and durable wood.In birch dahurica (Betula daurica) dark brown bark is separated by small scales, forming around the trunk of "coat".In Manchurian birch (Betula mandshurica) bark is grayish brown.Birch Schmidt or iron (Betula shmidtii), - growing on the rocky slopes of the tree with a dark gray or brown bark and the wood that sinks in water.In more svetlokoroy Birch Erman, or stone (Betula ermanii), meeting in Japan, the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka, the wood is also extremely hard and heavy.
Far Maksimovic birch (Betula maximowkziana) - tree with thick branches, light brownish or yellowish-gray trunk and large, like a linden leaves.Sensitivity to cold white birch Chinese (Betula alba sinensis), Japanese birch (Betula japonica) with white-pinkish trunk and useful birch (Betula iitilis) with snow-white bark, growing in the Himalayas.
Many species and the Americas.This black birch (Betula nigra) with brownish or reddish-brown birch bark, peeling large curling flaps.Very decorative cherry birch (Betula lenta), the color of the trunk which explains its name, unpretentious paper birch (Betula papyrifera), wherein a light cream with large crust detachable strips of birch bark, birch and blue (Betula coerulea) - color of its trunk has a bluish-whiteshade.American birch growing in the northern part of the continent and it is winter-hardy.
Among shrubby birches most famous European dwarf birch (Betula nana), growing to the north: its growth in all of 0.8-1 m. Slightly larger than the low birch (Betula humilis) with brown bark.In the north-east of Siberia and America lives a skinny birch (Betula exilis) with tiny rounded leaves.