Even in ancient Egypt was filled with stones baskets, woven from reeds, and position them along the banks of the Nile to flood protection.In more recent times such structures used for military fortifications, they were called gabions, translated it means "big cage".
With the advent of new materials and improved building technology application gabions widespread.In addition to the traditional function of shore protection they are used for everything retaining walls, strengthening of embankments, stabilizing soil erosion and soil conservation.Landscape designers see the gabions are not only functional, but also rich decorative possibilities, they are using gabion structures for the construction of fences, manufacture of garden tables and benches, as pots and other elements of garden decoration.
Grid, used for the manufacture of gabions, made of galvanized steel wire or a wire with a zinc-aluminum coating Galfan.Galfan coating better protects the steel from corrosion, elastic, it does n
ot flake off during deformation.Nets for gabions, which are exposed to aggressive media, have an additional coating of PVC.
gabions used for the production of double-twist mesh or welded wire mesh.Structures assembled from welded mesh have a more precise dimensions, their installation, placement and filling takes less time due to their stability.
gabions filled with any stone, the only limitation - the size, the stone should be slightly larger than the size of the grid cell.As the filler can be used as a tumbled stone (river stone, gravel) and ragged - quarry stone, gravel, cobbles.
gabions are available in various forms.Above all, this box - in the form of a parallelepiped structure having a height of 1 m and a length of 4 m. For imparting greater strength duct equipped with internal baffles - diaphragms.
box construction small height (17 to 50 cm) and a large area called the Reno mattresses.Their design also requires a diaphragm.Gabion such forms are used in structures designed to reduce soil erosion, protect against erosion under various objects.Intermediate between Reno mattresses and gabion boxes are Jumbo, having a standard height of 50 cm and a length of 3 to 6 meters.
Gabion bags are cylindrical in shape, diameter - 65 or 95 cm in length - from 2 to 4 meters.Cylindrical gabions performed well in the aftermath of accidents and natural disasters, as well as in structures subject to high wave loads, for example, the installation of hydraulic dams.
also gabion structure refers Terramesh system - structure, consisting of box gabions, to the lower edges of which are joined reinforcing bar.Such a system can effectively strengthen the slopes of embankments and slopes, combining the functions of a gabion structures and systems of soil reinforcement.System modules Terramesh arranged in horizontal layers, at the optimum distance required to ensure the sustainability of the soil
should be noted that the gabions are a good alternative to concrete structures and in many ways superior to them.For example, the gabion permeable to water, and so there is no undue pressure on the construction elements.Gabion environmentally friendly, they gradually accumulate algae, microorganisms or plant seeds germinate and gabion structure is transformed into a part of the landscape.
strength and flexibility of gabion structures ensures their long-term service, they can be deformed without breaking or cod, unlike concrete structures.
And, of course, one of the main benefits - efficiency.Transportation costs are minimal, since the gabions are delivered folded.Easy installation does not require highly skilled workers, the cost of preparing the grounds and in the operation are minimal, and the costs of construction of drainage absent, since permeable gabion systems do not require drainage.
Installation begins with the assembly of gabion box structure.It is spread all the bumps and curves, and then formed from the blank box to connect the panel wire bundles.For the dressing, you can use a stapler, you only need to comply with the distance between the coils of wire staples, or 120-150 mm.
first few gabions need to install on the prepared surface, scoring in the corners of the metal fastening pins.Joining together gabions need to "back to back" or "face to face" to the reinforcing wire on the edge of the cover of the gabion and another on the front side converges for subsequent bond.
Keep in mind that you can not just fill the entire volume of gabion stone.At a height of 1 meter box should be completed by a third and its fixed horizontal binding wire, and then repeat this process two more times.Gabion Jumbo, having a height of 50 cm, filled in for two steps and Reno mattresses small height can be filled immediately.Full gabion must be empty to him it was possible to tie the next.
Stones in the box should be laid tightly with a minimum of voids, but not to overflow.Feeding and loading of stone can be carried out mechanized, but optimally placed directly into the gabion stones, manually.If there are stones smaller than a cell network, they can be placed in the center of the gabion.
installing the cap gibbon, you must first fix its corners, and then link to the panels on the perimeter, simultaneously moving the stone, thereby preventing draw the cover in the center of the gabion.
of box gabions can create and curvilinear designs.To do this, gabions laid so that they overlap, cutting off any excess with scissors for cutting metal.In this way, one can create a desired rounding diameter and configuration.Gabions can be trimmed and end portion, in this case it is possible to achieve a smooth trajectory retaining walls.
Thus, gabion structures built as soon as possible and not disrupt the ecological balance of the area and the beauty of the landscape.The strength of the gabion the years will only increase as through mesh walls will penetrate the soil, increasing the design.