is not recommended to do the attic in the house where the roof indoor roofing iron - no insulation will save from the summer heat.Slate and tile roof - the best option in the regeneration of the attic.Since the attic - a living room in the attic space under the sloping roof, there is a question about the selection of the attic window.No matter how well the roof is protected from the effects of natural forces, it is the most open to the sun, wind, rain and snow, so the selection of the window depends on many things.
The architecture dormer windows are called vertical and inclined windows on a pitched roof.The superstructure on the roof, protecting and artistically draws up the vertical (at least - oblique) window is called the dormer.Dormer - superstructure, extending beyond the boundaries of a mansard roof and resembles a "birdhouse".In such architectural elements using conventional vertical windows.They may be of various shapes, which are repeated frames of the windows.Thus, the dormer may be triangul
interesting in this respect windows, which is a combination of vertical and mansard windows combined into one complex.Dormer windows and curtain look impressive and aesthetically pleasing in any interior.We made these windows of laminated veneer lumber from an array of northern pine.The wooden skylights made yourself, you can decorate trims, as usual, and carved, sculpted.
Make trims so.Planks (TEC) with a thickness of 50 mm, a width of 75-150 mm planed on all sides.Plat must always be wider than the bars of the box by 25-50 mm.On the reverse side of the casings is selected groove or gap depth of not more than 2 mm, which should not reach the edge of 10-15 mm.In this case, trim fit snugly inside the box and the wall.The face of the beaded trims selected the desired shape and size.Corresponding to plane blank cut it into pieces of the desired size.
Outside the window is protected by copper or aluminum salaries covered with a layer of UV resistant polyester.Inside the timber frame and sash antiseptic impregnated in the vacuum chamber and covered with two layers of colorless polyacrylic water-based varnish.The windows can be painted in any color, leaf perfectly fit together, they must be opened and closed without effort, tightness in the vestibule provides sealing contour of the heat - and moisture-resistant polymer, window fittings made of stainless steel.
When using skylights must be at least once a year to clean the area around the window from the leaves and foreign objects to allow free flow of water from the windows.In addition, every three years must be lubricated with grease hinges, designed for these purposes, and to cover the wooden elements of windows with a new layer of varnish or paint.For proper operation of the window will last up to 40 years.
Technological sequence arrangement attic
undertake work on the attic insulation is necessary after the frame is assembled attic, which includes: the uprights that form the foundation wall, horizontal bars, rafters - the Future of the ceiling, as well as collected fromwooden beams frame walls with door frame.
So assembled skeleton of the future premises, linked frame laid insulation.Now it is necessary to proceed to wall and ceiling.To this end, suitable for almost any material: wood fiber (Particle), stove, wall paneling, gypsum sheets, plywood thickness of 6-10 mm.Before plating the sheet material frame reinforce the crate by placing the board in the joints skin.It is better to make the inner lining of the lining of the attic - smoothly planed boards, not very wide, and preferably grooved.
This lining will make a cozy attic area of the house.After a thorough cleaning of the surface of the lining cloth and cover with hot linseed oil, and after drying - oil varnish eliminate the need for painting.Wood stain can be protonated, diluted in water, or a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), making the wall a few shades darker than the ceiling.
Exit the attic can be done both from the street and out of the room, veranda, equipping and installing the hatch ladder.
The simplest stairs can be made of two racks, boards section mm 50 x ZOO (bottom of the stairs) and grades of boards section 40x250 mm.For compounds with uprights stages they cut grooves to a depth of about 200 mm.Fix stages nails and glue (epoxy or casein).
Besides simple stairs, indoors, suitable screw options, especially if the house is on two levels.Make them possible virtually any available material, including wood, metal, or combinations thereof.
All buildings arranged roof.It may be the attic (sloping) and the built-up (combined).
Attic of the room and entrance hall: 1 - frame with two central doors opening;2 - beams cross section 80x80 mm;3 - headlining (lining thickness of 20 ... 25 mm);4- trim slant of the ceiling (lining thickness of 20 ... 25 mm);5 - self-made built-in lights;6 - built-in wardrobes;7 - wall paneling (lining thickness of 20 ... 25 mm thick hardboard 5 ... 6 mm);8 - floorboards thickness of 40 mm;9 - insulation (slag and vellum or film);10 - door in the partition;11 - partition between hallway and bathroom;12 guard the hatch (bars 40x40 mm);13 - lining the staircase (lining thickness of 20 ... 25 mm);14 - the door;15 - ladder;16 - podlestnichny cupboard pantry;17 -Door cabinet;18 - banister
Skylight roof arrange an angle to the horizon.Thermal insulation of the top floor rooms provided attic floors, and the roof serves as a guard against weathering, as topped with waterproof materials.Such a roof can be self-supporting or supported from below (from the loft) system of rafters, girders and struts.They are made with a steep slope.
The combined roof attic there, so in addition to those of the roof weather protection and are insulated.It comprising such a solid roof deck, leaning on the supporting construction of the house (walls, partitions) and the flooring laid on the heat - and waterproofing.Combined with the sloping roof make 1-5%, and sometimes entirely flat.Such roofs are the most important parts of the roof drainage, waterproofing carpet contiguity to other elements of the building, as well as access to the roof.Rain and melt water from the roofs with a flat cover can be removed inner and outer (free or organized) drainage.
Outside organized drainage from gutters arranged, drain pipes and parts for them.When organized outdoor wastewater removal eaves should be at least 40 cm.
free outdoor drainage arrange in buildings with eaves removal of at least 60 cm. This ledge formed by the release of slab.
Outside organized drainage is advisable to apply in the III and IV construction-climatic zones, where the probability of freezing b downpipes small, in areas where rainfall is not more than 300 mm per year.
on the roofs of buildings higher than two floors make the fence height not less than 60 cm. They can be in the form of a lattice or parapet.Lattice rods made of horizontal and vertical uprights (bars, angled) by welding them.Rack mounted at a distance of 20 cm to 1 m or 2 m from each other and secured to the deck of the roof bolts or crutches.That water does not penetrate into the holes and bolting or crutch seam sealed with silicone or burlap soaked in oil paint.
Built-up (combined) of the roof (cover) suit in buildings rectangular in plan.Combined roofs can be ventilated (between the roofing and insulation have air gap or channels) and unventilated - solid.For residential buildings, we recommend combined ventilated roof.
attic doing in the houses located in areas of very hot or very cold climates, where the attic floor acts as a buffer, which protects the room from the cooling or overheating.
Besstropilnye attic roof of the structure are varied and differ mainly in the type of used concrete slabs, or panels, as well as the system of drainage.Lofts such roofs are low, but sufficient for to be able to inspect the parts of the building and, if necessary, to place equipment, but not less than 1 m 60 cm. Attic space should be well ventilated and under floor attic should be insulated and have a reliable vapor barrier.The base under the roof of thin-walled ribbed suit and other types of panels on the length of the ramp or armotsementnyh shells.
Combined roofs have the following layers: waterproofing and foundation under it;heat and vapor barrier;and a protective carrying.
Protection (top layer) to arrange roofs with waterproofing carpet of spreading sand, gravel (3-10 mm), drowned in hot roofing mastic having a slope of up to 10%.
waterproofing layer in a flat roof made of tar paper, roofing, waterproofing, fiberglass combined with mastic asphalt.For their labels using hot or cold asphalt mastic.Mark bitumastic determined depending on the climatic conditions and the slope of the roof.
vapor barrier made to protect the coating from moisture vapor inside air, and placed under the insulation layer.Make it to the hot asphalt mastic roofing material in a single layer at a temperature in the winter of 15-30 "C below zero, in two layers, if the temperature is below -30 & amp; ී C. bearing structures combined coatings in buildings made of prefabricated concrete elements of lightweight concrete.
attic combined roofs require regular care, as a non-permanent temperature and humidity conditions is one of the causes of the roofs and eaves of ice dams and icicles, which contributes to premature failure of roofs and other building elements.
Flat roofs are used to relax people and equipment of sports fields, called the roof terrace, or exploited roofs. Their bias is in the range of 1-3%. roof terrace of residential and public buildings make built-up, that is. ie combinations or attic.
support base are ordinary concrete slabs or panels?
with insulation (combined) roofs on reinforced concrete base suit bilayer roll vapor barrier.Then stack the inorganic insulation (slag concrete, foam concrete) on which make the base (cement screed) under the multi-layered waterproofing carpet of rot-roll materials.The carpet is made from rot-roofing on the basis of, Borulina, waterproofing and others. On top of the waterproofing mat a drainage layer of gravel, which is well water tight and at the same time protects the waterproofing mat weatherproof.Floor roof terrace made of concrete or stone slabs.The required slope flat roofs give inclined arrangement of their bases or insulation or laying an additional layer of lean concrete of varying thickness.
When roofs, under which there is attic space, arrange on a reinforced concrete slab cement screed, then waterproofing carpet, a drainage layer and the floor.The design of the roof itself, in this case non-insulated;a heater placed in the attic floor, separating the attic space from the underlying floor.
When the device flat roof should pay special attention to their adjacency to the walls, towering above the roofs, as this is the most dangerous places for water penetration.
drain water from flat roofs make external or internal.Unlike unexploited combined coating applied to them more durable and less susceptible to deflections of roofing material, such as flashing (for the internal layers) Borulina or plastics roller (for the outer layers).(Roof terrace has a small slope and the strong protective layer which also serves as a terrace floor. Most often satisfied with a protective layer of reinforced concrete slabs with an outer lining ceramic or cement slabs, stacked on a layer of gravel thickness of 6-7 cm, which is the drainage water diverterto special receivers. However, even with all these structural measures are not ruled out the possibility of getting water beneath the terrace of the room. In order to ensure systematic observation of the state of the roof and in a timely manner to carry out preventive repairs, roof terrace often arrange for reinforced concrete, flat roof with atticspace.
requirements for device attic lofts
attic air is at a temperature intermediate between the ambient temperature and the temperature of the heated space. Therefore we can not prevent the formation of condensation in the attic moisture, lowering the performance of the plant and leading to premature failure of the structure.To this end:
1) well insulated attic (attic cover);
2) to ensure sufficient air between the coating and the attic;
3) to prevent the penetration of moisture into the interior attic floor with its lower side.To this end, under the insulating layer vapor barrier should arrange reliable roll of waterproofing materials.Under a layer of insulation vapor barrier is laid, such as glassine paper, pasted on mastic.The concrete slabs carefully sealed seams between the boards and ogruntovuyut cold asphalt mastic with sizing welds strips of waterproofing material;
4) provide intensive ventilation of the attic: a loft in the lower zone (under the eaves) - flow, and in the upper area of the attic (in the ridge) - exhaust.
roof, in order to successfully fulfill its purpose - to protect from the sun, rain, snow, wind, must have watertight protection and a definite bias.
roof consists of two main elements;roofing and the supporting structure (ramp - a triangular, trapezoidal or rectangular; horse - top, where the ramp converges; rib - inclined line vanishing two ramps that make up the inner corner; overhang - the lower part of the roof between the wall and drain).
in wooden prefabricated houses is most common gable roof.The geometric shape of the roof and cover, the slope of ramps depend on the size and shape of the building in plan, roofing material, method of water drainage, climatic conditions, feasibility and architectural considerations.
main forms of roofs and pavements are a lean-and dual.There are also hipped, summary, pyramidal, domed, conical, etc..
Species pitched roof forms
intersection of rays forms a horizontal horse.The upper triangular part of the wall at the gable roof is called a gable or pediment.
Slope intersection of rays forms a salient angle - the angle of the incoming edge or - valley (the valley).All ramps same roof do tend to have the same biases.
When choosing the form of the roof into account the possibility of the consumer for the independent exercise of work, preferring a simplified form of the roof without bends, valleys, perishable and difficult to be repaired.
The recommended slope of the roof slopes:
Slate (asbestos cement corrugated plates) 27% = 15,07 °;
roofing tin 20% = 11,20 & amp; ී;
tiles (falydevaya stamped) 50-60% = 26,35-31,00 & amp; ී;
roofing terrace - 0,5-1,5% = = 0,17-0,51 °;