Unfortunately, many developers do not fully understand that good design house will save up to 30% of funds during construction.Despite the fact that almost every one of us is familiar with sad experience samostroya, we continue to step on the same rake.None of us would dream to entrust medical operation layman.However, after reading 2-3 popular journal articles about the construction of houses, one begins to feel in this issue professional.About 30% of customers are proud to carry a construction company project of his own.In most cases the heart is compressed from melancholy when you represent, how it can turn a house.This applies in particular to the wooden houses.Wood - a living material.Construction of it has its own peculiarities and requires special knowledge.Moreover, not all professional architects and builders of their own.And this is not unusual if you have a toothache, you go to the dentist, not an optometrist, although both are doctors.So here - the design and construction of a wooden
During the construction of wooden houses in many cases it is not necessary to order the complete package of design and estimate documentation.This is especially true of small buildings (baths, garages and so on. D.).Most detailed project is required for the manufacture and construction of houses made of logs.This is due to the fact that all elements of the structure are made in the factory, and any deviation from the dimensions provided in the project makes it impossible to reassemble the house at the construction site.But even in this case the cost of the project documentation can be minimized.The structure of the documents, sufficient to manufacture and build a house made of logs must include: conceptual design, specification on elements (with the drawing and marking each log) and technological cards of assembly house (sweep the walls).
Draft project, first of all, gives the developer a complete picture of what needs to happen in the course of construction, and secondly, is the basic document to the house and is an integral part of the documents necessary for coordination with the local licensing authoritiespower.It must include :
- general explanatory note with initially allowing documentation, technical and economic indicators, a certificate of compliance with project managers draft standards;
- Plan basement (basement, ground floor);
- floor plans;
- facades with color scheme;
- cuts (longitudinal and transverse).
Specification for elements needed to manufacture on could well make all of the elements under construction, houses, and technological cards of assembly will help builders to assemble it all right.In some cases, respecting the architects and designers supplement this list of documents card logs cutting optimization, which allows to minimize the waste timber.
When designing the house made of logs should be aware that most businesses use for their production standard, six-meter timber.Since the walls of the houses in many cases, exceed the length of the log have to join together.In no case is not recommended to do it on an open wall.All joints must be provided to cut through, so that they could close the thermal lock, thereby eliminating cold bridges.It should be remembered that the stiffness carcass and correct its shrinkage, the log must gush each other.It is undesirable to join logs in one place for more than three consecutive crowns.Also it does not recommended overlogging more than 4.5 to 5 meters apart, in order to prevent horizontal movements of logs, which may lead to the formation of cracks in the wall.This also applies to buildings, chopped by hand.And, of course, is an axiom, which is often overlooked (especially at designing bay windows) in a log house can only be an even number of angles.
next important step after designing a prefabricated elements log of logs.
at different enterprises have different mechanisms cylindering, which employ specialists with different skills and, as a result, to obtain products of different quality and different prices.Below we will try to summarize some of the requirements to the quality of manufactured logs.If you follow them, you can make a set with the housing assembly which the builders will have no problems.
1) Party goods made of logs (hereinafter - products) produced a single housing, should consist mostly of logs of the same breed.Although it allowed to use different breeds with the same properties (such as pine and spruce) or rocks with different properties at different levels (for example: the first two capitals of larch, and the rest - pine and spruce).
2) For the manufacture of products to be used logs of natural humidity (humidity is not standardized), harvested from growing trees.Using logs from dead (withered before cutting) of trees is not allowed.
3) products are not allowed: rot, wormholes, chips and mechanical damage to the treated surface and the ends.In order to identify these shortcomings conducted a visual inspection of each product.
4) It is not advisable deviation of the diameter of the product (D) of more than 5 mm from the nominal diameter specified in the specification: Reference diameter measurements shall be made using calipers each product over its entire length (see. Fig. 1).
5) It is not advisable a deviation of the longitudinal dimensions of the product (L) by more than 5 mm from the values given in the specification.Test measurements should be carried out for each product over its entire length.Control is performed by means of templates (G) out polubrevna corresponding diameter with an axial mark (see. Fig. 2).
6) is not desirable curvature of the product with the sag (H) of more than 0.5% of the length of the article.Measurement of deflection curvature is performed by a cord and a line on the surface of the product, the entire circumference of the product (see. Fig. 3).
7) It is not advisable violation of the longitudinal geometry of the part (screw).The fins of the heat of the castle must lie in the same plane (Q).Baseline measurements are made on each product.This product is placed on a flat surface thermal lock facing down.Thereafter, using a ruler measured gaps (G) between the fins of the heat lock and the surface on which the product rests.The gaps should not exceed 3 mm (see. Fig. 1.3).
8) The width of thermal lock (F) must be equal to the radius (R) products.It is not advisable deviation width thermal lock more than 5 mm.Test measurements should be carried out with the help of each product line over the entire length of the heat of the castle (see. Fig. 1).
9) radius of the arc thermal lock (R1) must be equal to the radius (R) product (see. Fig. 1).
10) is not advisable to lock the heat deflection depth of more than 5 mm over the entire length of the product.Test measurements made using a rack and have each product line over its entire length (see. Fig. 1).
11) radius of the circle surface finish 4auieK (R2) must be equal to the radius of the product (R).The treated surface of the cups should be strictly cylindrical.Control is performed using a template made of suitable diameter polubrevna.The surface of the template should fit, without gaps adjacent to the surface of the cup.No gaps are allowed more than 5 mm (see. Fig. 2).
12) cups axes (X) should be crossed with the longitudinal axis of the timber (V) at an angle of 90 degrees (see. Fig. 2).It is not advisable axis deviation cups more than 1 degree.To control the use of T - shaped pattern (T), and a protractor.The template is made from a length polubrevna and slats, connected at an angle of 90 degrees (see. Fig. 4).Control measurements must be carried out each dish on each product.
13) cups axes (X) should be parallel to the plane defined by the edges of the thermal lock (Q).To control using the template made of suitable diameter and polubrevna line.Distance measurement is performed from the surface pattern to one of the edges of the thermal lock (P) in the four corner points of each cup.The aforementioned distance must be equal to each other (see. Fig. 2).It is not advisable deviation between more than 2 mm.
14) over the cup residue products (M) should be not more than 5 mm smaller than its radius.
Test measurements are made using calipers each product.Not desirable deviation of more than 2 mm (see. Fig. 2).
15) each product must be marked with the appropriate specification.Marking indelible ink on the plate, nailed to one end.
16) warehousing, storage, packing, loading, transportation and unloading of goods should exclude mechanical damage and surface contamination.At the same time pay attention to the cleanliness of the vehicle body and, if necessary, to make it clean before loading products.But the bottom of the body to be installed in the support rails that are made uniform styling products.
17) For each batch of products must be made shipping specification, which, along with the obligatory details should include the following data:
- the name of the party (set);
- marking the position of the batch of products;
- the number of items for each position;
- name, title and signature of the person in control of the shipped product quality and quantity;
- the total volume of products shipped Party.Of course, the above requirements on actual production run is very difficult and most enterprises deviations from the project size is much wider.
So we produced a set of housing made of logs.Now you need to assemble it.Despite the seeming simplicity of this problem (of course, if there is competent routings assembly), we would recommend outsource it to specialists.In each case there are a lot of features that are known only to professionals.
To obtain a strong house, first of all, you need a properly designed foundation, which should be in any structure, be it a two-storey house, room or gazebo.However, it is important not to overdo it.Do not bury your money in the ground.Do not lay the foundation to a depth of freezing.Better you the money to furnish the house with nice furniture, built himself a bathhouse.
As you know, the cost of installation of foundations make up a large share of the total cost of the construction of low-rise buildings.Wooden houses are relatively light structures and small loads on foundations (40-120 kN) cause increased sensitivity to the forces of frost heave.
the Moscow region for more than 80% composed of heaving soils.These include clay, loam, sandy loam, silty sand and fine.In certain humidity these soils was frozen in winter, increasing in volume, which results in a rise of soil layers within the depth of its freezing.Located in the grounds of the foundations are subjected to buckling if the load acting on them do not balance the forces of swelling.Since the deformation uneven frost heave occurs uneven rise of foundations that accumulate over time, resulting in the construction of buildings undergo inadmissible deformation and collapse.
employed in the practice of building activity against buckling by laying the foundations to a depth of freezing does not ensure the stability of light buildings, such as the foundations have developed a side surface on which are great value for the shear strength of swelling.
thus universally applicable and resource-costly foundations do not provide reliable operation of low-rise buildings built on heaving soils.
One solution to the problem of building on heaving soils low-rise buildings is the use of melkozaglublennyh foundations are laid in the soil layer SEASONALLY.
melkozaglublennyh basic principle of constructing the foundations of buildings with load-bearing walls on heaving soils is that the strip foundations of the walls of the building are combined into a single system and form a sufficiently rigid horizontal frame, redistributed non-uniform deformation of the base.
Application melkozaglublennyh foundation is based on a fundamentally new approach to their design, which laid the basis for the calculation bases in the deformations of swelling.Thus, the deformation of the base (lifting, including irregular), but must be below the limits which depend on the design features of the building.Above the foundation design are considered not only as a source of stress on the foundations, but also as an active member, participating in joint work with the base of the foundation.The larger the rigidity for bending, the smaller the relative deformation of the base.
Long life melkozaglublennyh foundations of buildings on the evidence of their reliability, and experience shows that their use reduces the associated costs by 1.5-2 times.
About walling almost everything has been said above.The main thing here just follow the design documentation.Once you put all manufactured items you get ready home box that will only cover the roof and make the finishing work.It is only to warn that the use of frame elements, plasterboard, tiles and other decorative materials is possible only by an independent frame that avoids deformation structures.
During the construction of wooden houses, special attention should be paid to intermediate floor.Typically, floor beams using either the same timber, as well as for house walls or beams.In order to obtain a strong overlap and there is no so-called "membrane effect" should correctly calculate cross-sections depending on the distance between them and the width of the span.
For simplicity, we present the data for the correct calculation in a table.Using it, we find the value of the minimum cross-sections for the span of two to six meters.This data is suitable for the majority of low-rise buildings.If the beams are located at a distance of one meter from each other, they should be chosen for the cross section of the first row of the table, and if they are spaced apart by a distance sixty centimeters, the cross section is determined by using a lower value in the same row.
quantity take flight equal to the distance between the planes of opposite inner bearing walls plus 20 centimeters.If you do not have bars with a cross section shown in the table, they can be replaced with boards, fastened together with nails.For example, timber 14x10 cm., Can be replaced by two boards 14x5 cm.
Here we come to the construction of the roof.Errors during installation it can bring a lot of grief and additional costs hapless developer.
device roof of a wooden house with timbered gables is fundamentally different from other types of devices roofs of houses.The fundamental error in its designing is a hard compound trusses with ridge and medium runs, combined in turn with the front of the house into a single structure.During rainfall gables of the upper part with the roof ridge may drop by 25-35 cm. In this case, a change in the geometry of the roof system.Angle connection rafters in ridge increases - ridge binding is broken.Angle connection rafters with mauerlat reduced.In addition, the rafters will shift to 10-20 cm with respect to the previous location.Curtain binding is broken.