believe that each user sees forumhouse.ru your home differently.Someone wants a stone cottage, and someone likes a wooden chalet.But no matter what material it is built your home, usually at the heart of any home is placed comfortable living in it, and functionality.A ground floor at any home this convenient and very practical.
So, if you want to build a house with a basement floor, but do not know where to start, then this article you will learn:
- What types of ground floor which benefits from their use;
- What materials may be raised ground floor;
- How to start the construction of the basement;
- On what ground it is best to build the ground floor;
- Features building basement;
- How to seal the ground floor;
- Features Operating basement.
What is it - the ground floor?
Before we get acquainted with the technical details of the construction of the basement, it is necessary to understand what it is and what benefits the developer receives in its construction.
Construction Consultant Roman Nikonov :
- Ground floor - is operated by the room, ie a room with access used for temporary or permanent stay of people.Mark the floor, which is located below the ground level around the building.
Basement often - used for device engineering, storage and utility rooms, ie all types of premises, in addition to living rooms.Also in the basement may perform wiring Communications with easy access for repair and maintenance.
engineer construction company fundamental.RF Andrew Pashuhin.
- Operation house with a ground floor promises many benefits to its owner.After all, in addition to more space, the owner of the house gets a multifunctional space where you can post:
- boiler room;
- billiard room;
Thus we obtain the so-called house under the house .And because all the utilities, hidden in the basement, there are no odors and noise from operating equipment that provides an increased level of comfort of living in the main house.
Types and features basements
Despite the fact that many are currently in the ground floor of a large basement, in this structure has its own characteristics.
Roman Nikonov :
- Ground floor, not intended for finding people - called tehpodpolem, and is typically used for the construction of communications and storage of a supply of food, for example - potatoes.
Basement, depending on its height, can be - -through, and the semi-go .As a general rule, the floor is equal to or tehpodpolya located just below the ground level around the building.
If the basement for more than two-thirds below ground level and, moreover, has no natural light in the form of window openings in the basement - it is called basement.
If the basement and have a temperature range below 12 - 15 degrees and is used to store food or wine, then it more applicable name «cellar."
Ground Floors can be made of the following materials:
- monolithic concrete;
- Precast Concrete (FBS) of reinforced concrete elements.
design of the ground floor - includes plate floor and walls, which may like to rely on the stove, and placed it on the perimeter.In the first case - we are dealing with almost slab foundation, zaglublёnnym to floor level basement.
This decision is justified for heavy buildings and with a high level of groundwater.In the second case - a strip foundation and floor slab cap can be relatively thin, but the entire load of the house takes on the only strip foundation.
Practice shows that the choice of the method of manufacturing the ground floor, will largely depend on its final cost and durability.
- advantages monolithic basement - is the best strength and waterproofing properties.The advantages of precast basement - a lower cost compared to the monolithic and simplicity of its construction.
Roman Nikonov :
- When choosing a cap of precast concrete elements, be aware that sometimes, at low load of the building - for example, if a base is built for easy carcass or lumber house masonryof the blocks FBS, by the forces of frost heaving can be deformed.
dependence constructive basement on the type of soil
As is known, the construction of the foundation begins with a study of the soil.It is especially important to consider this point in the construction of the basement.After all, any error made at this stage can lead to a significant rise in the cost estimates for the entire building.
- Cost of work in the construction of the basement is directly dependent on the type of soil.The better the geology, the easier and cheaper to design foundation.
consider several types of soil:
device basement on clay, heaving soils and high groundwater level.
Roman Nikonov :
- When the device basement in heaving soils, be sure to protect the walls of the cap from the horizontal forces of frost heaving, and on the uneven earth pressure on the wall.This is achieved by a device of sand cushion on the perimeter walls, usually - backfilling excavation sinuses nepuchinistym ground - coarse sand, or the PGS medium sands.
With the high level of ground water, as well as the danger perched - water from heavy rains or melting snow, the whole circuit of the cap is necessary to protect the waterproofing materials.
If GWL above the base of 0.5 meters or more, recommended further protect the waterproofing from damage flat asbestos cement sheets or pressing wall of brick.
effective remedy is a unit of wall formation and drainage.
head of the company BAUBILD Alexander Zemskov:
- Erection of a ground floor on difficult terrain with high groundwater table resulting in a substantial increase in construction costs.Only the cost of drainage and waterproofing can cover the cost of the structural part of the basement.
ideal conditions for the construction of the ground floor is sandy soils with low groundwater table.Under these conditions, a minimum waterproofing and drainage is not required, as under these circumstances, you can backfill.
- It should be remembered that not every soil is suitable for backfill.And it requires an individual approach.
Roman Nikonov :
- For backfill soil can only be used with no heaving properties ..
device basement peat, swampy soil, water-saturated sand.
On these grounds can only device in the form of the cap of the box - that is completely waterproof design.
device basements on such grounds has high complexity and high cost of production, and often leads to an unjustified increase in the entire construction budget.
device basement in sandy soils, suspesyah, rocky ground .
It is almost ideal soil for the device socket (with low groundwater table).Eliminating the drainage device.
Features of erection of a ground floor
Any experienced developer knows that when building the foundation is first necessary to prepare the site.A right start - is half the battle.So what you need to pay attention to the preparation of the site for the construction of the basement?
- First of all it is necessary to protect the construction site organize home town, electricity, industrial water, and access roads. And also to make sure that on the area of work there is no active communication.
- Since the construction of the cap is required to perform a large amount of earthwork, the for digging the pit is the most rational use of the full-circle with an excavator scoop close to the cube of 1.Even at the stage of digging the pit need to think in advance what to do with the soil from the construction site.And sinceit is usually a very large number, the most correct is the simultaneous digging excavation and removal of soil.Excavators digging and immediately loads the truck.
Many independent developers make one mistake and digging in "Blade " leave the matter to the soil for later .But then, when the house is already built, take out the ground harder, because the technique to drive to the site is quite problematic and need to be ordered again excavator loading earth.
- already under construction pit excavation must be provided in which to collect water, and from which it would be convenient to pump.Just when the device is important to perform a pit slopes, so they do not crumble and not to complicate the construction.
pit is usually made wider basement 1-1.5 meters - it is necessary for the production of waterproofing and drainage device, backfill the basement must be made not heaving soils.
- To build a house with a basement floor, it is necessary to draw attention to the fact that the supporting structure of the basement is conditionally divided into three components:
- or sole plate;
- The design of ground floors are of two types: "cup" and "box".
- "Glass" - made of reinforced concrete.Cast base plate and the wall and ceiling basement is another material - logs, prefabricated ceilings, etc.
- "box" - made of reinforced concrete.Cast all together - the foundation slab, walls and basement floor.
"box" has a greater load capacity.
meaning of drainage is to lower the water table below the foundation slab of the basement and prevent or reduce the extent of their penetration into the ground floor.The main burden falls on drainage during spring flood.
Drainage is a natural - due to the relief of the site and forced - using discharge pumps.
Roman Nikonov :
- When the construction work is important to avoid soaking the bottom of the pit, especially if it is composed of clay soils.For this is drainage around the perimeter of the excavation with dewatering or dewatering construction - in practice, this drainage around the perimeter or used wellpoints.
Thus, moving the water from the area, we have to minimize the undesirable process such as a frost heave, and to reduce the depth of freezing it is necessary to insulate the foundation, for example, dug around the perimeter of the sheets of extruded polystyrene.
- Thickness Epps for non-residential premises of 50 mm to 100 mm housing.But I recommend a thickness of 150 mm.
choice of a basement waterproofing system begins at the design stage of your future home.
Expert Corporation TekhnoNIKOL Andrew teeth.
- Waterproofing basement - is not just a coating of asphalt concrete in two layers.This is a complex of measures aimed at preventing water from entering the premises.
elements of this system may be:
- concrete or reinforced concrete ground floor;
- waterproofing membrane;
- Drainage foundation.
Concrete itself is quite good waterproofing material.
And to concrete well proved its waterproofing properties, you need to perform a few simple rules.
- design of the ground floor shall not prevent the formation of cracks, under any loads acting on it.
- entire volume of concrete to be poured without construction joints.
Basement, composed of PBS without additional protection, will miss the water. After the weakest point of any design team are its seams.
- If technological joints still there, it is absolutely necessary to take measures for their sealing.
- Working fittings must be installed in strict accordance with the project.
- Careful vibration poured concrete, or the use of self-compacting concrete.
Roman Nikonov :
- When using the basement - you need to, first of all, to monitor the humidity in the room and leaks.Otherwise, the formation of mold, moisture, accelerated destruction of structures.
Premises cap should be well ventilated - with the help of ventilation or conventional ventilation.You should also monitor the status of drainage systems, blind area from the roof and gutter.
Drainage - requires periodic flushing and drain and blind area, not allowing water to fall directly to the wall socket must be kept in good repair.
Thus, during the construction of the ground floor, before the start of the construction is necessary to take into account a range of factors affecting the reliability, durability and cost of construction, and the ground floor should be regarded as long-term investment in improving comfort and functionality to your home.
All information on foundations forumhouse.ru users may find in this section of our forum.With detailed and compelling story about the construction of our forumchanin monolithic basement forumhouse.ru users can be found here . Hot discussion process of digging a basement excavation conducted in this branch of our forum.And in this video clearly shows all the stages of work on the recast of the problematic basement.