Practical experience has shown users forumhouse.ru, enough to build a solid house.To make your home was really comfortable and serve you faithfully for many years, it must be protected from the damaging effects of ground water and precipitation.And this requires a reliable waterproofing.
So try to understand:
- What is waterproofing?
- What can cause the rejection of waterproofing?
- What's in the package of measures for waterproofing the house?
- What types of modern waterproofing materials?
- When should I apply some form of waterproofing?
- How to protect waterproofing backfill?
- For which facilities need waterproofing?
- What is done and how the roof waterproofing?
What is waterproofing?
main purpose of waterproofing - is the protection of buildings and structures from the adverse effects of water.Waterproofing purpose is to increase the life of the house and its operation to improve the quality.
Director of «Kalmatron-SPb» Elena Merzlyakov:
- waterproofing of buildings can not be don
example, waterproofing the basement can include:
- Waterproofing floors and walls;
- Waterproofing places pairing;
- Waterproofing concrete construction joints;
- Waterproofing joints, places the input of communications and horizontal cut-off;
- Arrangement of drainage ditches and blind area.
choice of technology and materials, in each case strictly individual and depends on the specific conditions of the object, its condition, location, and the materials from which it is made.
Expert Corporation « TekhnoNIKOL» Andrew Jags:
- water penetrating into the underground part of the house, reducing its operating properties and worsens microclimatic conditions in the premises located in the underground part of the building.
addition, water penetrates builders cause corrosion and failure of concrete reinforcement, which deteriorates the static properties of the structure, and eventually lead to its destruction.
Technician Company Sika Nikolai Mikhailov:
- Waterproofing, made only from within, eliminates the problem of damp basements.But if the outer part of the structure will remain in constant contact with water, it will lead to its premature failure.It is therefore important to do waterproofing and outside.
complex waterproofing measures include:
- Waterproofing entries communications;
- device of wall or deep drainage.
The necessity of certain measures dictated by the type of soil, ground water level, landscape features and other natural factors.
waterproofing foundation - the foundation of all
Foundation - the foundation of any structure.The stronger and better made by the foundation, the more reliable and safer design or the building itself.The main building material for the device of the foundation is concrete.Many developers believe that because the concrete itself is quite durable material, waterproofing it to anything.But is it really?
- It must be remembered that the concrete is quite hygroscopic and absorb moisture well, that eventually leads to leaching.As a result of leaching increases the porosity of the cement stone and reduces its strength.The process is accelerated if the cement stone has a "soft" water, or water under pressure.
main means of combating the leaching of calcium hydroxide is the use of dense concrete and cement introduction of active mineral additives.If you have any problems with water penetration into the already built and operated facilities, is an effective means is to use penetrating waterproofing.
use waterproofing compositions penetrating eliminates the possibility of water filtering through the body of the concrete structure.
- Concrete itself is quite good waterproofing material.But to the concrete showed its waterproofing properties, you must follow a few simple but, in practice, very burdensome rules.Namely:
- of foundations must prevent cracking under stress.
- entire volume of concrete to be poured in a single technological cycle without «cold» seams.
Precast concrete blocks from FBS necessarily need additional protection.
- All technological joints must necessarily be sealed by means of swelling strings, sealants, waterstops, etc.
- Working fittings must be installed in strict accordance with the project
- must carefully provibrirovat already poured concrete.
- important to make further curing.
necessary to hide the fresh concrete wet burlap and shed with water every 2-3 hours (even at night) for three -Five, and in hot weather - seven days.
But can in some cases to do without foundation waterproofing?
- is possible, if you do not intend to use the basement and do not count on a long life of the foundation.For example, the strip foundation as a garage or shed is quite possible to perform without waterproofing, for 10-15 years with the foundation did not happen.
Types and modern waterproofing materials
Modern waterproofing materials can be divided into three large groups by origin - a polymer, bitumen and mineral materials.
By way of applying waterproofing materials made on obmazochnye, roller svobodnoukladyvaemye membrane fusing roller and liquid coating materials.
- It is important to know what materials to ensure waterproofing, designed for specific tasks.
- roll waterproofing.
Traditionally rolls are cardboard-soaked waterproofing materials (roofing material, Fiber-glass).
- Mastics - adhesive plastic compounds based on organic binders and dispersion of fillers.
most famous - hot and cold at mastic oil bitumen.
mixtures of cement, synthetic resins and various additives (plasticizers, hardeners).They are sold in dry form and are mixed directly on the job site.
- proofing (hydrophobic liquid).
Mixes silicone-based compounds esters, silicic acid and organic solvents, which, in contrast to the "normal" exterior waterproofing materials, "soaks up" the concrete surface.
At its core are divided into polyethylene films, polypropylene films and membranes.
- Injection waterproofing.
binder injection is carried out in the seams, cracks or building structures in the adjacent soil.They are used usually for repair.
- Penetrating waterproofing.
components deposited on the concrete surface, penetrate deep into the concrete as he pores and capillaries even against high hydrostatic pressure.These formations, tightly filling all pores and microvoids, compacted concrete structure, thus providing, reliable water resistance.
Lifetime penetrating material is the same as the life of the concrete.
Materials «penetrating waterproofing» best suited for the repair and waterproofing of concrete and concrete products and structures, as well as cement-sand plasters.
But in any case required to apply some form of waterproofing?
- The choice of material for waterproofing depends on several factors, such as:
- Feature aggressive environment acting on the building structure;
- terms of the structure;
- type design;
- climatic conditions;
- results of geotechnical surveys;
- Chance mechanical or thermal effects on the structure.
- If the building into the ground, in any case, it must be waterproofed.Even if you have the groundwater level is low enough, it can be heavy rains, floods and snowfalls.A groundwater level may vary over time.
- Mineral waterproofing for designs simple form, not prone to cracking.In general obmazochnye mineral materials and bituminous base suitable for waterproofing basements and two floors zaglublёnnyh.For more serious designs, complex geological conditions and greater reliability appropriate to do waterproofing polymeric membrane.
But besides protecting basement waterproofing needs in areas that are constantly in contact with water.
- Waterproofing balconies and terraces is performed using mineral waterproofing materials, which can be laid tiles using mineral or polymeric tile adhesives.
Also, there are waterproofing materials based on polyurethane, which can combine the function of waterproofing and elastic gluing tiles.
- for waterproofing wet areas in the first place, you must first find and eliminate the cause of water penetration.The most common weaknesses flow structures, such as construction joints concreting, construction and expansion joints.
seams waterproofing injection using polymeric materials or using waterproof tape, is adhered to the surface of the concrete structure.Then you must perform waterproofing the floor and walls of the room using a cement based waterproofing.
Application Method and applying waterproofing
By way of applying waterproofing materials are divided into obmazochnye, roller svobodnoukladyvaemye membrane fusing roller and liquid coating materials.
- lubricative, sprayed and facing materials require mandatory mechanical surface preparation.They can only be applied on substrates having the required strength and usually at temperatures above +5 degrees.
as training grounds used sandblasting, treatment with water under high pressure or mechanical preparation using power tools.
- Surface preparation prior to application of waterproofing membranes is one of the most important, and often - and the most difficult and time consuming process step.
Since concrete is the most common building material, most often subject to the preparation of the surface of concrete and reinforced concrete, less brick and natural stone.
The quality of the surface depends on the material used as a waterproofing membrane.There are basic requirements for the quality of the preparation of concrete and reinforced concrete surfaces:
- Lack loose easily loose elements;
- absence of cracks (especially parallel expansion joints), chips and shells neprovibrirovannogo concrete sections;
- Smooth surface geometry;
- removing all dirt and materials preventing adhesion (dirt, dust, laitance, release agents, etc.).
If failure to meet requirements for surface preparation, quality waterproof membrane and waterproofing the entire system will be low.
Since waterproofing, as mentioned above, includes a range of measures, it is important to protect the waterproofing layer when the backfill foundation.
- waterproofing layer, as a rule, should be protected from mechanical damage and chemical exposure, UV, and so on. D.
First waterproofing mechanical protection needed to be backfilled soil excavationas there is risk of damage to the waterproofing mechanisms, stones and debris.
to protect the waterproofing use different methods:
- retaining device or protective walls made of brick or reinforced concrete;
- Performing plaster or protective screed of cement-sand mortar;
- fixing or gluing various materials: shaped membrane, asbestos cement sheets, extruded polystyrene plates, etc..
Penetrating waterproofing does not require protection, as its principle of operation is based on the penetration of chemically active part of the composition of concrete and depth educationpores and microcracks of sparingly soluble crystals, thereby forming a homogeneous, monolithic structure with the very concrete.
- flexible waterproofing membrane different from the hard, the presence of such an indicator as the flexibility or elongation at break.Expressed as a percentage, and means that the various types of motions and deformations that may occur in the basement, flexible waterproofing membrane maintains its integrity.But further flexible membrane must be protected.Rigid waterproofing membrane does not need additional protection, but they can not maintain its integrity under motions and deformations of the foundation.
- should be remembered that no protection will not save the waterproofing of the backfill made mёrzlym soil and soil containing debris and stones.
backfill is recommended to carry out draining soil compaction manually stratified.
Waterproofing roof - is an indispensable element in the device of any building.To the roof of your home is not flowed, it must be waterproofed.But there are some features and secrets.
Expert Corporation «TekhnoNIKOL» Anastasia Pokachalova:
- For waterproofing of the roof is very important to pay attention not only on the quality of the material, but also on the quality of installation of waterproofing coating, and the correct design of the roof.
construction professionals from Germany received the following figures:
- 45% of the problems with the roof caused by the poor quality of its installation;
- 34% of the errors associated with the improper design;
- 7% of the problems occur because of damage to the roof during construction;
- 14% are due to damage of a material or the use of improper roofing.
Improper installation of waterproofing roofing contractor risks losing all the benefits of his chosen material.