for strength and solidity, rows of masonry made with mismatched vertical joints, ie with their dressings.
Purpose Masonry and types of masonry
tile work performed in the construction of various stone buildings and structures;foundations, walls, columns, partitions and others.
Depending on the materials used distinguish the following types of masonry:
2) building block,
4) rubble concrete,
most common is brickwork.Carry it from the corpulent and hollow clay brick for all the designs and brands 75-300 silicate corpulent, hollow and porous brick surface structures brands 75-300.
building block masonry made of artificial and natural stones of regular shape to the size and weight allows manual clutch.By artificial materials include: ceramic and silicate rocks, stones, concrete, soil-concrete blocks and adobe.The last two types of small blocks are used in agricultural engineering.As the use of natural materials stones of regular shape, cut from limestone, lime
rubble - a clutch of natural stones of irregular shape, called rubble stone.It is used mainly for the installation of foundations and basement walls.
rubble concrete masonry consisting of rubble, recessed in the concrete mix, and apply it for the same purposes as the Butovo.
laying plank is made of natural, pre-processed stones.Apply for bridge piers, viaducts, retaining walls, embankments, culverts, etc.The high cost and the complexity of the masonry and ashlar processing limit the scope of the plank facing masonry to other types of masonry.For the cladding of buildings, except for the stones used plates cut from granite, marble and other types of natural stone with the processing of their outer surfaces.
Masonry create the piece laying stones on a solution that connects the stones together.As a result, due to the alignment of the contact surfaces provides a more uniform transmission of forces on the stones and masonry prevented from blowing and water penetration.The type and composition of the solution depends on the purpose of the masonry, the conditions of its operation and identifies the project.
Depending on the finishing wall surface adopted joints between the individual stones is completely filled with a solution, giving them a definite shape jointing, or leave blank to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Accordingly, under the brickwork is called unravel and pustoshovku.Laying formed in pustoshovku later or veneer plaster.According to the regulatory requirements for the bricks and stones of regular shape thickness of horizontal joints must be at least 10 and not more than 15 mm (average 12) vertical within 8-15 mm (mean 10).
Terms cutting masonry.To ensure the work of masonry as a monolithic mass and prevent the movement of rocks under the influence of stress in service design is necessary to have them, respecting certain conditions, which are called the rules of cutting.
first rule - you must keep the clutch series, bounded by a plane perpendicular to the direction of the forces.Based on this rule, masonry, perceiving vertical loads are horizontal rows.The arches and vaults of the plane limiting the numbers of a laying should be perpendicular to the pressure curve.This provides work stones compressive and shear forces are eliminated.Tolerance perpendicular to the plane limiting the rows of masonry, with the direction of the forces expressed by the angle should not exceed 15-17 °.This angle is determined by the condition of balancing the action of shear forces inclined to oppose it and the frictional force.
second rule - in each row of the side faces of stones should form a system of two mutually perpendicular planes.This one system of planes must be perpendicular to the bed and the front surface of the masonry, and the second - parallel and perpendicular to the front surface of the bed.These planes form a laying vertical transverse and longitudinal joints.If the side faces of stones in violation of this rule will be placed obliquely, they made like a wedge under the influence of stress can push the surrounding rocks and stones edges with sharp corners to chip.
third rule - the vertical transverse and longitudinal joints in adjacent rows do not have to be the same, that is to have a bandage.
When used in laying solid solutions, cement binder may be left without dressings vertical longitudinal seams in five rows or vertical transverse joints in three rows of bricks.If an array of masonry cut the entire height of the vertical seams are formed separate unstable pillars that under load can be deformed.
Forms.By design and technological features brickwork divided into:
5) masonry lined.
solid masonry.This masonry, designed as a monolithic array of thickness, 0.5 times the bricks.The rows are composed of solid masonry bricks laid along the outer faces of the walls, called miles, and filling in between - back filling.The number of bricks laid along the long wall (spoon) or short (poke) party.From the way the bricks are stacked against the wall, the whole series is called the stretcher or binder.Back filling or spread butting use halves.
When solid masonry walls are used single-row (chain) or a multilayered system of dressing;narrow piers (width 1 m) and columns - three-row.
When the single-row (chain) bandaging system Bonder stretcher and alternate rows.Each vertical seam overlaps the lower row of the top row of bricks.In each row vertical transverse seals overlap at 1/4, and the vertical longitudinal - 1/2 bricks.To cover vertical transverse joints 1/2 brick masonry begin the series with three fours (3/4 bricks).On the front side of interconnected vertical bricks form a pattern in the form of chains (this explains the still preserved the name - chain ligation).Laying a single-row system dressings is highly durable;it is fully in compliance with all three rules cutting.However, it requires a considerable amount of work on the laying of a large volume of verstovyh series (constituting 75% of the total thickness of the walls when laying two bricks) and harvesting three fours.
multiple-row system dressings based on the alternation of a series of five perpender stretcher.Thus vertical transverse seams overlap the overlying bricks in each row, and longitudinal seams - only five rows.In a masonry load-bearing capacity of 94% in relation to this indicator masonry with single-row system dressings.However, it is less time consuming due to the decrease in the volume verstovyh series (58% of the total thickness of the walls when laying two bricks) due to increase in back filling and reduce harvesting three fours.
three-row system dressings (proposed Onishchik LN) allows a coincidence of the vertical longitudinal and transverse joints in adjacent rows of three, tying up their fourth near masonry.
Regardless of the system adopted requires dressing the ranks of masonry - the first and the last, as well as at the level edged walls and pillars in the projecting elements (cornices, belts, etc.) under the supporting parts of beams, slabs and other structures - spreadbutting of whole bricks.Forced breaks in the masonry may be carried out in the form of an inclined or vertical indent.For communication with the adjacent masonry joints in vertical structural reinforcement lay indent - at least three rods with a diameter of 8 mm at 2 m height and at the level of overlap.The difference in height of masonry erected in adjacent areas should not exceed the height of floors.
Lightweight masonry - this lightweight walling consisting of two parallel walls, each as thick as a half-brick, which is located between the thermal insulation in the form filling, lightweight concrete blocks, inserts, slab insulation (used in low-rise rural construction).For the connection between the walls of a used horizontal vutoobraznye reinforced mortar and brick diaphragm bonder series, entering the insulating layer on a half-brick and brick vertical walls.
Reinforced masonry. To increase the carrying capacity of highly loaded walls, pillars and narrow piers used transverse and longitudinal reinforcement of masonry, placing the valve in horizontal and vertical joints.The thickness of the joints in the masonry must be less than the sum of the diameters of intersecting reinforcement 4 mm, subject to regulatory medium thickness of the seam.The transverse reinforcement exercise or rectangular grids such as "zigzag" with a diameter of 3-8 mm rods that are placed not less than five rows of masonry.Grids "zigzag" arranged in adjacent rows so that the direction of bars in them was mutually perpendicular.The individual (control) ends of the rods must protrude 2-3 mm.If the longitudinal reinforcement bars placed in vertical joints or outside the structure and connect clips.
decorative brickwork. Recently, widely used two kinds of decorative masonry: vertical seams on the height of buildings in the outer versta same in all ranks.On the outer side wall brickwork consists of alternating single and three stretcher perpender series.Vertical and horizontal joints perform the same thickness, adhering to the same profile when grouting.In decorative purposes are also used a combination of silica and clay bricks.
masonry lined. With such masonry outer wall decoration carried out simultaneously with their erection.To use the front facing of brick, laying it in the outer range of a mile along with ordinary masonry bricks, using a multilayered system of dressing.Facial layer of masonry associated with the array rows tychkovymi wall.Along with masonry walls also perform facing mortgage or leaning ceramic plates.
Technology solid masonry. All operations on laying brick mason manually.To do this, it must have the special tools and fixtures.By appointment are divided into production and test.
to production tools include:
- combined trowel, designed for leveling solution on the wall, the formation of joints and spalling of the brick;
- hammer-kirochku choppers and Teskey brick;
- shovel of mortar to supply the solution to the wall, spreading on the wall during the formation of stitches and mixing in the box;
- unravel the seams to give the desired shape.
As a control, measuring instruments and tools are used:
- prichalku - twisted cord with a diameter of 2-3 mm, pulls horizontally to indicate the upper surface verstovyh series;
- level, as a rule, 1.2-1.5 m in length to control the straightness of rows and the front surface of the masonry;
- a plumb line to check its verticality;tape measure and measuring metal folding ruler;
- poryadovkoy made in the form of metal or wooden slats over to mark the outer rows in height, with the cut every 77 mm divisions, which secured prichalku;
- mooring brackets for prichalku at a laying of internal verst;
- square to check the angles bookmark walls and pillars.
process brickwork consists of a series of sequential work steps: Installation and permutations prichalku;supply and layout brick wall;feeding and spreading of the solution;laying bricks on the solution grouting;validation of masonry.If necessary, a grouting, obkolku Tesco and brick.
installation prichalku spend for each row of masonry exterior and two or three rows of inner mile.For outdoor mile prichalku poryadovkoy attach to that set on the outside of the wall at all put out by the corners, intersections and at least 12 meters from one another on the straights.Stringing prichalku when laying the interior is carried out by a mile mooring brackets.The sharp end of it is driven into the seam masonry and blunt, with strings attached, is based on lighthouse brick masonry.The free end of prichalku wound on the arm bracket.Installation and poryadovok prichalku performs mason highest qualification in the link using improvised.To prichalku not sag under her 4-5 m Lighthouse bricks laid on a solution.
Brick served and laid in such a way to be comfortable in the future to lay it on the solution.For masonry stretcher verstovyh number advisable to lay a brick stack on two bricks each, arranging them in parallel or obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the wall.For perpender number of stacks of bricks perpendicular to the axis of a wall.This brick is designed for outdoor verstovyh series are laid on the inner half of the wall, and for a number of internal verst - on the outer half.
solution is fed with a shovel and spread a mortar just below the six or seven bricks.When laying in pustoshovku layer solution does not reach the edge of the wall 2-2.5 cm;while laying under the full unravel and seam - 1- 1.5 cm. Under back filling solution is spread with a trowel continuous strip without otstupok.Bricklaying and grouting is carried out in different ways depending on the position of the brick in the row, required completeness formed seam, the plasticity of the solution.Laying verstovyh series operate: in prisyk with trimming solution or clamp, laying back filling - in poluprityk.
prisyk The method used in the masonry walls in pustoshovku.Mason face obliquely positioned brick raking part of the solution spread out to form a vertical seam.Gradually evening, move close to the brick masonry and previously performed by pressing the hand face down into place.This method of stacking the most efficient, brick can be laid at the same time with two hands.
manner in prisyk with trimming bricks laid with full grouting for further jointing.The solution rake face brick, but the rein-back part of the solution is squeezed onto the front surface and trimmed with a trowel.
method to clamp used for laying under unravel, if necessary, a more complete filling of the seam.To qualify, the vertical joints, mason leveled and rakes solution trowel aside earlier laid brick, and then pushes it against the Kelme while removing it.Surplus cut solution.The process requires a tighter clamping solution than prisyk and more laborious.
method to use when filling poluprisyk back filling, and consists in laying on the mortar bed with both hands simultaneously two bricks.Vertical joints with only partially filled.Completely fill in the spreading of the solution under a subsequent row of bricks.
correctness laying checked by measurement and control instruments and devices, as its construction, but at least twice per meter of height to be corrected in a timely manner.Deviation from the vertical masonry should not exceed 10 mm per floor and 30 mm in the entire building, the deviation from the horizontal rows of masonry - 15 mm at 10 m length of the wall, the width of walls - minus 15 mm, width of openings - + 15 mm.
Obkolka and Teska brick is to produce irregularities in bricks for dressing sutures (fours halves and Thursday of three).Pre mason marks line chipping bricks, and then hammer-kirochkoy pererubaet it.Tesco shaped brick for architectural details made on special machines.
Grouting - finishing operation masonry.Perform it after each installation of one or two series and pre-treatment with the face of the tool, pointing the corresponding profile.
The above process brickwork can be arranged thread-dissected or thread-ring (conveyor) method.