- decorative trim walls of buildings;
- protect the walls from the adverse effects of the environment: precipitation, temperature, humidity.
Forms. There are 2 types of front masonry:
- masonry wall and its front surface of the same material;
- the face of the masonry walls of a special face brick or stone, having natural or artificial coloring or ofakturennye and smooth surface.At the same time the rest of the masonry walls made of ordinary masonry.
Types of bricks. «Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language" edited D.N.Ushakova offers three definitions brick:
1. Artificial stone, manufactured in the form of bars made of baked clay and used for buildings.
2. One piece of the stone.
3. The solid material in the form of the stone.
terms of composition and method of manufacturing a brick is divided into;ceramic (clay) and calcium silicate.
Ceramic brick obtained by firing clay and mixtures thereof.The structure can be full-bodied or hollow core.Void in t
composition silicate bricks: = 90% sand, 10% lime and a small percentage of additives.By adding pigments obtained silicate brick practically any color - blue, green, crimson, purple.Uses low popularity becauseIt absorbs moisture and, as a consequence, has a relatively low resistance to frost.Moreover, silicate bricks differs from the ceramic high density and reduced insulating properties, wall structures are more difficult, requiring high durability of the foundation construction.
By appointment ceramic brick divided into: ordinary (the building) and the front (facing, finishing, front).
ordinary brick used for the internal and external rows of masonry (obligatory subsequent plaster).Private brick can have on the side depressed geometric pattern (for better grip with plaster solution).
Facing bricks - uniform color, has two smooth, flat front surface (so-called "poke" and "stretcher").
left - an ordinary brick, right - front
He usually, hollow (ie, contains a lot of voids, making a wall of bricks of the "warm").
used for cladding and textured (embossed pattern with the front surface) and shaped (or figured, profile) bricks used for masonry * complex shapes: arches, columns, etc.
For manufacturing fireplaces and stoves use the furnace and fireclay bricks.
appearance. brick size: 250 x 120 x 65 mm.
Its thickness can vary.There are single (thickness 65 mm), thick (or one and a half) - 88 mm and a standard ceramic stone (or double brick) - 138 mm.
color. brick color mainly depends on the composition of the clay.Most of the clay after firing have a classic brick color (called brick and red).Less common are yellow, apricot or white brick.Sometimes the raw material is introduced various pigment additives.
Stone. stone face - a stone wall, designed for the simultaneous laying and facing of walls of buildings and having one or two end faces.
are following the facial surface texture of stone (types and nature of the surface structure):
1. Texture fluted - rough surface with a regular alternation of longitudinal projections and (or) depressions,
Bastard Single and double bricks
2. The texture of chopped (under the "fur coat" or "rock") - fractured surfaces with roughness of the relief height of more than 8 mm and not further processed.
3. The texture is smooth - is uniformly rough surface without traces of processing, obtained during the manufacturing process.
Optionally can be manufactured with grinding stones facial texture, iewith a uniformly rough surface with traces of processing, obtained by a single grinding.
EXAMPLES decorative brickwork
pic.2. Examples of decorative masonry
One variety is the front brickwork decorative brickwork.In order to emphasize the architectural expression of masonry structure and give personality using various ways of cutting the face layer vertical joints, layout and bandaging brick front layer, as well as using a different color, texture and size of bricks (Figure 2)
Fig.3. Decorative front masonry piers with vertical seams neperevyazannymi:
and - with vertical through-seams;
b - offset butting
building widespread decorative brickworkneperevyazannymi partially in front versta transverse vertical seams (Fig. 3).For example, the personal cross-layer vertical joints are tied only 3-6 rows, or the entire front surface of the masonry is dissected solid vertical seams on the band width of a brick.Within each of these bands in 2-3 rows of masonry laid butting, which creates a layer with a facial bandage masonry wall.There are other options for dressing vertical transverse seams facing layer.However, in all cases it is necessary as to ensure ligation of masonry cladding layer and the main body of the wall.Alternating stretcher and header brick masonry in specified in such a project.
Decoration of the front surface of the masonry used patterned and textured masonry, belts height of one row of bricks or more, as well as different ways of jointing.To make
surface relief pattern of masonry bricks have, for example, so that in terms of their plane faces formed with the plane of the wall angle.Some of the bricks are laid flat,
others - on the edge, placing them in a checkerboard pattern, resulting in a relief pattern (Fig. 4).
Fig.4. Relief decorative brickwork.
while - corbel bricks laid at an angle;b - band of bricks laid at an angle on the edge;in - part wall of bricks laid at an angle
masonry walls with architectural details
Architectural details of building facades, executed in brick and stone masonry complicate.The complexity of the masonry exterior walls set on each floor as a whole in the form of a percentage ratio of the area occupied by complicated pieces of masonry (on both sides of the outer walls), the total area of the front side of the exterior walls, without any deduction of openings.
Depending on the complexity of the masonry exterior walls are:
- simple - with complicated parts, which cover an area not exceeding 10% of the front surface exterior walls;
- medium difficulty - with complicated parts, which cover an area of, respectively, less than 20% of the front surface exterior walls;
- complicated - complicated parts they occupy no more than 40% of the front surface exterior walls;
- particularly complex - with a complicated surface, which occupies more than 40% of the total area.
For complicated parts of laying rails are made of brick or clay tiles, pilasters, corbels, sandriks, rusty, buttresses, half-columns, bay windows, framing openings curved shape, as well as parapet and other niches.
Pilaster, pilaster (fr. Pilastre, um. Pilastro, Lat. Rila - post) - flat vertical projection (rectangular in plan) in the wall.Maybe both decorative and structural element, arranged to strengthen the wall.
Cornice (from the Greek.) - Protruding zone, crowning the outer wall of the building,
designed to protect the walls from rain.Cornice is divided into three parts (from the bottom up: maintenance, drip edge and crowns).
Cornice, well - decoration in the wall projection, terraced shelf under the roof, ceiling and so on. Used to decorate the ceilings and walls interior, mainly at the junction of the ceiling and walls.Also, along with panels, blades, rusticated moldings used to decorate the walls of buildings.
Belt - belt, smooth band stretched horizontally, slightly protruding from the surface of the mast.
Fascia - Decorative architectural detail of the cornice or frontonchika (sometimes
resting on two brackets, pilasters or columns on the sides of the opening) of the window or door openings on the facades of buildings, at least in the interior.It may be formed as a rectangular over and over curvilinear opening.
Rust - horizontal furrows at a depth of 30-60 mm in masonry exterior walls, arranged in four or eight rows.Rust Belt to divide the facade, creating a relief surface.
Buttress (fr. Contrefort - strong armor. Contra - against), vertical design, which is a part of the wall or serving, or free-standing, connected to it by flying buttresses.It promotes sustainable wall so that its weight counteracts the thrust vaults.
semicolony - column protruding from the wall about 1/2 of its diameter.
Erker (it. Erker - lantern) - a semi-circular, multi-faceted glazed ledge in the wall of the building.It passes through several floors or the entire height (usually in addition to the first floor).It increases the area of the interior, improved lighting and insolation.
Niche (fr. Noscher - socket, hold the socket, um. Nicchia) - hole in the wall, rectangular or semi-circular in plan, with different completion of the overlap.AN is used for the installation of statues, vases, accommodation built-in cabinets, for a device of fountains.AN is used for the processing of plastic wall.
Laying architectural elements of rectangular and profile brick carry out simultaneously with the construction of exterior and interior walls of the building.Details corbels and cornices spread of bricks that act as brackets with a stepped profile.Brackets are made of facing brick delivered to the edge or laid flat.Fields between arms filled with ordinary or specialized bricks or artistic inserts.Speakers series of masonry in the eaves,
Fig.5. Laying of walls with simultaneous facing
silicate or ceramic plates:
1 - anchor;2 - pyrone;3 - leaning facing
plate;4 - Applied number plates.
girdle, etc.independently of the ligation is performed from whole bricks.Thus each row of masonry overhang allowed no more than 1/4 of the brick, and a common stem reinforced eaves - no more than 1/4 of the wall thickness.
If the wall spread of brick, the rows for the overhanging eaves, belts and other parts that require Teskey bricks, using an ordinary (full-bodied) or special (profile) face brick.To cladding simultaneously with the construction of their use mortgages, t. E. Pinched in the masonry, and other types of plates that are fixed with steel brackets, hooks and wires.Shackles, hooks and wires lay in the joints between the bricks or stones in masonry.Applied also facing plates, fix not only the wire, but prokladnymi rows, embedded in the masonry.For facing at the same time serve as concrete masonry, ceramic, silikatobetonnye plates and slabs of natural stone.
Before starting the masonry walls with simultaneous facing their large boards prepare a horizontal surface of the base.On the surface layer of mortar is spread.At the corners of the walls placed majachnye veneer and pull a cord-prichalku.On-cord prichalku at a height of one row all the intermediate plate and validate
Fig.6. Relief masonry: a - bands;b - cornices
installation plumb and level, and then perform the masonry wall to the height set by a number of plates.The process is repeated masonry.
When facing slabs of natural stone slabs series interconnected staples or plate hooks embedded in grooves Face plates.Fix the plate of natural stone anchors and concrete slabs fixed to the masonry of the wire loop anchors.Masonry walls with simultaneous facing of ceramic, concrete or silicate plates, secured by prokladnyh series performed in the following sequence (Fig. 5).
After laying prokladnogo first series exhibited a number of cladding panels leaning, then erecting masonry walls to the level of the top of the leaning of tiles and a number of newly laid prokladnoy facing.
To make laying grooved pattern, bricks arranged so one of them lay flat, the other on the edge.This entire pattern is repeated in a staggered, resulting in a relief pattern (Fig. 6, 7).The surface of the front decorative masonry can be made not just patterned smooth, but also grooved, having a height of bands in a row
Fig.7. Decorative brickwork belts
brick or a few bricks, moreover, carried out grouting.
All speakers ranks in the eaves, belts, etc., Regardless of the dressing masonry, made of whole bricks.And the overhang of each series of masonry should not exceed 1/3 of the brick, and the total overhang reinforced eaves should be 1/2 the thickness of the wall.Cornices, total removal of more than half the thickness of the walls are made using masonry reinforcement solution at 25 marks or concrete elements, zaankerivaemyh in the masonry.Laying of architectural elements is performed in accordance with the project.To make brick desired shape, it carved out.Overhanging rows of cornices, corbels, Sandrikov and other parts made of ordinary (full-bodied) or special (profile) obverse brick even if the masonry is carried out from the brick.
for laying the architectural details are used as ceramic stones, ceramic, stone, concrete slabs and finished parts made of concrete, ceramics, natural stone.When making casings and slopes window and door openings on the device corbels, cornices and ornaments of fronts used concrete and reinforced concrete parts.Eaves with ceramic parts are allowed to do only in the dressing with a clutch overlap.Moreover, the overall loss does not exceed half the thickness of the wall.Architectural detail of natural stone decorate caps (Fig. 8), trim, soffits, belts.Installing architectural
Fig.8. Finishing plinth brick walls:
and - facing brick stone;b - facing tiles;in - the scorer of concrete blocks;g - of the baffle brick;d - plastered
parts being in the process of laying, but is also possible on the previously laid out the masonry, fastening hooks or crutches that are embedded into the socket, or cramps, which are embedded in the masonry joints.Methods of fixing are specified in the project.
MOUNT ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS
Concrete and reinforced concrete architectural details apply at registration of platbands and slopes of door and window openings, the device belts, large cornices and ornaments of fronts.For these purposes use architectural details from ceramics.
architectural detail of natural stone make out mainly skirting, architraves and soffits, and are satisfied with the belts.Architectural details as well as other facing products are set as in the masonry, and the previously constructed wall.At the same time apply the same methods of fastening: hooks crutches or are embedded in the nest, or cramps, joints embedded in the masonry during its construction, and in other ways, in accordance with the instructions provided in the working drawings.