In Moscow photographer Ivan Hafizov unusual role: for several years, he traveled through the cities and villages of Russia and removes trim .Now the collection of Ivan - over seven thousand photographs of 102 cities in the central part of the country, the Urals and Siberia, many of which he puts in the virtual museum carved architraves.This non-profit project photographer launched four years ago, determined to show the world the beauty of Russian wooden architecture.It will take quite some time, and most of the casings, which today takes Ivan can be seen only in photographs.
What secrets kept a trim why in the old days, they were mounted on the windows, and the modern wooden lace different from the works of masters of XVIII-XX centuries, Ivan Hafizov tells readers forumhouse.ru.
Shutters - from the sun, wind and bears
- I've never lived in a house with frames, and even spent the summer do not have grandparents in the village, as many as in Kazan, as all my ancestors in the XIX centurymoved fr
om rural areas to cities.But the summer of 2007, being a business trip in Engels, Saratov region, I walked around the city with a camera and, for the most part out of boredom, he began to photograph colorful wooden shutters on homes.Houses were many locals paint spared, so sometimes met completely crazy color combinations.In general, from this trip I brought home more than a hundred pieces of colored photos window casings.A month later there was a trip by bicycle in the Yaroslavl region, when it turned out that the trim on the windows of Rostov the Great completely different than those that were in Engels!At this time I began to shoot them already quite deliberately and methodically - from house to house, trying to sort out what they look like and what is the difference ...
plat with shutters in Nerchinsk Trans-Baikal Territory
firstdifference - the presence or absence of shutters.And interestingly, all the shutters have different functionality.In the north - summer polar day, and people close their shutters when to go to bed, so that the light does not interfere.In the Volga region is very sunny - the shutters closed during the day to the house is not heated.And beyond the Urals shutters protect from the strong cold wind.Previously, they were called - Plug-and were not on its hinges, and simply insert the handles.A woman, listen to me carefully, said that in Yakutia shutters - from bears.
oldest frames that I shot - in Irkutsk, in a house built in 1760.This four-planochki boards, the most common.Their main task - to close the gap between the frame and the wall, do not miss the wind.Later, in the XIX century, began to hang above the window also inclined plate, which is protected from the rain - a lot of casings in Finland.We are also there, but the beauty in them not yet.
Later frames can be divided into two groups - the people (their cut-taught master) and architectural, are ordered from professional carvers landowners or merchants.Vologda, Tyumen, Novosibirsk - the city where woodcarving simulates big styles: Baroque, Classicism, Art Nouveau.And people do not look so trim pretentious, although the master sometimes sought to repeat the elements visible in the windows of the rich master.
sun, fields and dragons
- Sometimes even the simplest casing can lead to real jungle.What message encrypted cutter in fanciful patterns?Who owned the house and what is its history?If you study the plat "depth" is not enough for a lifetime to learn all about each of them.So I try to focus on a comparison between the casings themselves.
What characters can be found on the casings?In the first place, of course, the sun - cut it in Soviet times, and now continue.The next most popular are floral designs.In Yaroslavl, part of Ivanovo, Moscow and Tver regions in the casings can see snakes and dragons.Rostov Veliky I found casing once with five (!) Dragons.Snakes are not afraid of their privechali - have a good housewife always lived under the house uzhik, defended by mice cat worse.In some books they write that there are symbols of the earth - diamonds with intersecting diagonal stripes (plowed field along the first, then - across).But I found this symbol only two casings of seven thousand.Even the Star of David - a traditional Jewish symbol - the more common pieces of my seven.There are some casings and five-pointed stars - the symbols of the Soviet era.
Dragons on the casings in Rostov Veliky
Kizhi I photographed interesting casing with signs similar to Roman numerals - IXXI.Guides told a local version of what they stand for, the first cross - head of the family, the second cross - his younger brother.Stick to the left - his son, and the right - his second son.And in the end it turns out that the house belonged to the second son of the brother of head of family.But unlike the generic characters, such designations could appear on the houses of several unrelated families.
in Krasnoyarsk Territory for many, even today, you can see the casings ancient tribal symbol in the form of an inverted fork.Mongolian generic signs are called "tamga", and this, with a pitchfork - "Tarak-tamga".A similar tamga, for example, was a coat of arms of the dynasty Giray, who had long ruled the Crimean Khanate.
"Tamga" on the jamb of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
In my opinion, a misconception that all the masters know and understand the value patterns that they cut, and it is the sacred knowledge was passed.I think it is not cut, because his grandfather and a neighbor so it was, or so it was fashionable.I have recently seen - remove windows with trim.And I ask: "Why are you doing this?Beautifully well! ".The reply was: "Before it was fashionable, now - not fashionable.That shoot. "It's simple.
Red with green
- In my archive lots of pictures, where the old rim frames are now plastic windows.At first they even shoot at the camera does not like.But then I realized that this is an inevitable process - it is impossible, when you are constantly blowing from windows.People want warmth and comfort, and they have two choices: remove the trim completely or leave them by installing new windows.The second decision is worthy of respect, and be encouraged.Of course, today it is possible to install modern wooden windows with high glazed windows that look more aesthetically pleasing, but they are not very popular because there are more expensive than plastic.
of Yukhnov, Kaluga region
With withering casings created by masters after the war and before the revolution, there are also new.Now among the carvers have two movements - those who did trim even under the Soviet regime and continue to work, and the new wave - the young guys 25-30 years.And trim the two groups are fundamentally different from each other.The first cut on the old-fashioned way: by copying the books or seen the neighbor.Young people trying to bring their own, using new technology: programmed in the CNC - again, you're done.And instead of the casings obtained molded board.To technology requires knowledge and books that have described the architecture of casings, there is still no - for masters exist purely technical publications or those that tell of Slavic signs.So my dream - to publish a book, which will be collected photographs and descriptions casings from all regions of our vast country.
Show really have something!When I first saw the house Tomsk, I was fascinated by the game of black and silver.Mainly in trims made of Russian pine, but under the influence of climate, it all faded differently.But in the XIX century, these wooden buildings were more beautiful in blue, white and even green and orange tones - people lived in happy homes.Ceased painting from poverty in 20-30s of the last century.If you look at photos of Prokudin-Gorsky early XX century, there are no unpainted windows.After all, lacquers, stains, oils, allowing to keep the texture of natural materials, there not so long ago, and the old masters was more important to save the tree itself, and not its image.
huts and people
- When traveling rejoice not only carved discoveries, but also meetings with people who live in these old houses.Although there are different: someone friendly - interested, not about whether the repair of the road I arrived, and who threatens to call the police.In small towns and villages usually take pictures of a house, and at the other end of the village of you already know.
And once I walked in Omsk, filmed local casings, and I was approached by a huge bearded guy."Plat take pictures?Ah-ah-ah ... we did this too! ".So early in the morning on a weekday in a strange city, I met master casings that had just captured on camera.His name was Hottabych.That's lucky!
Profile : Ivan Hafizov, 34 years old.He graduated from the Moscow State Pedagogical University, the education - teacher of mathematics and computer science.By vocation - a photographer, in addition to hobbies aprons, engaged in interior and wedding photography.Married, with two daughters.
If you want to decorate a house with wooden lace, see our video on how to reconstruct the elements of Russian architecture on the site.And read the advice of our members of the forum who are fond of art carvings.Ideas how to refine the porch, you will find in this material.