Any construction is best to start on the basis of user experience FORUMHOUSE.
In this article we will talk about at what point should focus, if you plan to build a cellar at a high level of groundwater.
Before proceeding to the construction of cellars, it is necessary to determine the structure and size.
- completely buried;
cellar size depends on the number of products which are supposed to be stored in it.For a family of 3-4 people is enough small room - 1,5h2 meters, pledged to a depth of 1-2 meters.If you plan to store a large number of products, increasing the size of the cellar, for example, 3x3 or 3x5 meters.
Cellar can be any shape - square, rectangular, flat or vaulted ceiling, but the choice of design cellar, first of all, depends on the type of soil in the area and the depth of groundwater.
A high groundwater level should think hard about how and whether to build a fully recessed cellar.After a spring cellar can become a real pool.
- My neighbor each spring for several days pumps water out of the cellar under the house.I warned him that our water table and dig deeper into the cellar or basement suit useless.
- My husband and his father made a cellar under the barn.High groundwater table, perched there.In waterproofing probably already plagued the whole machine tar.All to no avail, the water found a place, the cellar was flooded, and the water in it is already several years.
To avoid this, first of all it is necessary to perform a series of measures related to the drainage system of surface and ground water, which is arranged drainage system.
For example, in the floor of the cellar makes a pit, it is inserted into the drain pipe that goes to the depth and drains water.
Another option - a drain at the base plate cellar.Cellar girded drainage pipe, which sloped away to the far end of the site.Also for pumping water, if it is impossible to arrange a natural slope can be embedded in the drain pipe of the drain hose from the pump that will pump out the water.
If in a high groundwater table, then in the construction of the cellar to do good drainage!
Besides drainage also need to seal the well cellar.You can use the experience with anybody forumchanin vlad55 :
- I once helped his cousin to build a cellar under the garage.Garage located on an artificial lake.The water level in the lake is subject to seasonal fluctuations of up to 1 meter, so that the wall of the garage can be heard the sound of waves.
Dig cellar and make a reliable waterproofing in such circumstances - not an easy task.Validating done so: in the spring, in May, when the water level in the lake dropped, the builders dug a hole under the future cellar, made formwork and poured concrete floor and walls as thick as 10 cm.
Two weeks later, when the concrete gained strength, builders meltedbitumen missed floors, walls, corners of the cellar, and even on hot bitumen, waterproofing stuck.
waterproofing bands are glued in two layers: one layer - and one along - across.After that, inside the cellar again erected formwork and filled the second floor and wall thickness of 8 cm. Thus, it has turned pilot controlled check valve between two layers of concrete.In the words of forumchanin, since the construction was held for 35 years, and in the cellar there is a drop of water!
hydroprotection addition, when applying the cellar should be aware of the phenomenon as ascent or squeezing design from the ground due to the forces of frost heaving and the availability of nearby groundwater.To hedge, you can perform the calculation.
- Calculate "pop up" the cellar or not, is quite simple.Concrete average weighs 2.5 tons per 1m3.Suppose the size of the cellar is 3h2h2 meters.On this basis, its volume will be 12 m3h2.5 = 30 tons.Assume that the thickness of the walls at the cellar is 20 cm. From this data, calculate the volume of the walls and find the mass of the cellar: 5.6h2.5 = 14 tons.
Given the buoyancy if the groundwater level is not higher than 1 meter cellar with a weight not pop up.If the groundwater level is higher and above the cellar there is a thick layer of earth, the structure can squeeze.To avoid this and to do more wall thickness (to increase the weight of the cellar), you can anchor it.For this cellar foundation by pouring concrete is 20 cm wider than the distance between the outer walls.For example, if the walls are filled with 2x3 meters, the size of the base is 2,4h3,4 meters.As a result, around the perimeter of the projection is obtained.Sincecellar is filled with soil, which is compacted, then, thanks to the ledge, cellar-like foundation securely anchored TISE.
There are times when even the quality waterproofing and drainage are not saved from flooding the cellar.And then in the case enters the heavy artillery - the so-called cellar-caissons, made of metal or plastic.Their main drawback - the high cost.
- The price of welded 3 mm stainless steel caisson cause to doubt the necessity of such a cellar.
- I myself have cooked caisson under the cellar of 3 mm steel sheets measuring 2h3h2 meters.All plastered wall waterproofing.I have a high water table, I remember that we had all the time to pump out the water from the excavated pit.When the caisson installed, I overlaid on all sides with clay 20 cm thick. The result: in the cellar - dry winter temperature + 2 ° C, in the summer of + 5 ° C.But the construction of the cellar, I spent the whole summer!And I did it in the early '90s, when the price of iron has not been so high.I do not know what I would have cost the cellar this is now.
also in the construction of the cellar must be made ventilation.As the ventilation tube can be used two plastic pipes with a diameter of 15 cm. One pipe starts from the cellar floor, and the second - from the ceiling.This provides traction.Alternatively, it is possible to insert one of the pipes of supply and exhaust fan.
Often when groundwater table is high, it is better to abandon the construction of a sunken cellar and build poluzaglublenny cellar.And it would be better if such do not cellar under the house and a free-standing structure.
For this digging pit a 4x4 meter and a depth of 1 meter.The bottom of the pit is filled with sand, gravel, with a mandatory layered tamper.The base is filled with bitumen, tar paper stacked layer and a layer of thick reinforced polyethylene film (you can use the b / u banners).Then, on top of the pie, stacked metal grid with cells 10x10 cm and poured concrete layer thickness of 5-8 cm.
- When I was doing myself poluzaglublёnnycellar, then the base plate put polyethylene, but under the stairs forgotten.I can say that at a time when the plate has dried up, the steps were still wet, becausesucked the water out of the ground.
- I spring portion is almost in the water.Caisson stainless steel I do not pull financially, but if cooking it from a simple steel, then in 10-15 years he is an aggressive environment rust, so I decided to do poluzaglublenny cellar.
Members Active removed fertile layer of soil.Then, right on the clay, put two layers of polyethylene film, filled reinforced monolithic slab of 3x3 meters with the addition of silicate in the concrete adhesive.Then vit678 on plitevylozhil izkeramzitovogo block cellar height of 2 meters.The roof is in the cellar - monolithic.Expanded clay plastered cement mixture with the addition of silicate glue and cellar walls are sheathed exterior extruded polystyrene 10 cm thick.
Then cellar completely buried underground (nezasypannym can only entrance leading to the cellar - the so-called arm or trunk).Top for estetki on cellar can be planted grass.In winter, this design can be used as a hill for skiing kids.
- The result is not a cellar, and a storage shed, but essentially it does not change.Products stored perfectly!
Learn how to build poluzaglublenny cellar, users can FORUMHOUSE in this topic.A detailed photo report on the construction of the cellar with an arched vault is located here.
Here explains how to destroy the mold in the cellar.And if you follow this link, you can watch a video about how to make waterproofing the basement with a high groundwater table.