What do you think, how to begin construction of the foundation in your area?With the development of the project at home?Digging of the pit?
forumhouse.ru User Experience suggests - the design of the foundation in the first place will depend on the design of the house and on the bearing capacity of the soil in your yard!
But, alas, many neglect even the preliminary studies of the soil, hoping perhaps for a certain - « maybe blow over and the foundation will not crack.Or, place the tape wider and bury it deep. "
It should be remembered that the choice of base for the house - this important event and to the future not to engage in costly repairs foundation first, be sure to explore the soil on the site!
In most cases, a complete geology can produce only specialized organizations engaged in drilling operations, but there is not so simple.That is the experience of our new posts with the nickname Tatusja who decided to explore the ground on his site and at the same time learn about the
- Drilling company "on the limestone" - they have special equipment that I called, they say that I have water at a depth of 35-40 meters.A diggers wells "in the spring", claim that on 9-15 meters.
should know that drilling companies in the contract may stipulate that if the water is not found, then the well is considered to be intelligence and paid 50% of the cost of drilling.And at a price of 2,300 rubles per meter drilled, it is likely to pay 50 thousand. Rub., Satisfy their curiosity and eventually left without water.
article about where to take the water to the summer cottage, available this link .
- I decided to make a geological survey follows.I am special geological map my area on the Internet, and using it know the geology on your site.
dates of your data can be saved in a format pdf.
- Now I am quite clearly know that my site is: 30-40 cm rendzina - loam soil forming carbonate.Under the fertile soil is rocky ground - dolomites and limestones.Freezing depth of 1.2 meters, but the groundwater level -35 meters and rocky ground I do not care, because nothing will not become swollen.The aquifer is located at 35-40 m (hole in the limestone) with the prevailing debit 5000-1000 cubic meters.m. / day (fountain), but you can set and well "in the spring" - 13-15 meters, if you find on the site.
opinion of the consultant on the construction of Roman Nikonov (forum name RNikonov )
- What did you learn on the cards and the data area 10 km.from you - it gives an idea of what kind of breed to meet with a probability of about 50%.Suffice creek ran through the territory of your land for 30-40 years 30 000 years ago, to completely change the geological structure of the soil.
Council - before the start of construction to perform drilling for water, aligning it with the definition of soil at construction site.
learn how to self-drill a hole in the closest to the surface of the aquifer told in this article .
But the user of our forum with the nickname Sherxan believes that to pay 70,000 rubles for geological surveys very expensive.
So is it possible to independently carry out geological surveys and at least tentatively find out what kind of soil in your yard?
According to our forumchanin Julia (forum name Yuliy1933 ) possible.
- The structure simplified geological surveys at the construction site will go down:
- Determination of the composition, density and strength of each of the underlying layers of soil;
- Determination of the presence and location of the water table.
to determine the composition and density of ground layers is torn off at the site two pit depth of at least 2.0 m. Pit must be placed at a distance of 3-4 meters from the perimeter of the alleged house diagonally.
As one of the pits can be used for cesspool toilets being built cottage.
Then, you need to carefully examine each layer and measure its height.The information we logged.These data were compared with the most common types of soil, namely:
- rocky ground.
most durable - it is rocky ground.Rocky soils characterized by high compressive strength in water-saturated state.
rocky ground not deformed, not eroded, not frozen, but the construction work is very heavy.Therefore, the trench in such a ground can not do, and to lay the foundation directly on the surface of the pre-aligned platforms.
Gravel - a natural or artificial material, which is rounded grain size 5-70 mm with a smooth surface.They are just as rocky ground, are deformed and eroded slightly frozen.
In these soils the depth of laying the foundation should be at least 0.5 meters.Rated resistance of these soils is 6.0 kg / cm2 (for dense soils) and 5.0 kg / cm2 (for soils of medium density).
- Clay .
even less solid ground is clay.Since the pores of the clay in the majority of cases are filled with water, then the freezing of its volume increases, and begins the process of frost heaving.
- clay soils at greater compression than sand, but under the influence of stress densification rate from clay is much smaller than sand.Consequently precipitate buildings, which is a clay base, it continues for a long time.The bearing capacity of clay in a plastic condition and dilution is very small, dry clay is able to withstand considerable loads.
In places with high humidity, soil depth of laying the foundation must comply with the calculated depth of freezing.
- sandy soil.
consist of particles with a size of 0.1-2 mm.Depending on the ratio of their composition of particles of different sizes, divided into gravelly sands, large and medium-size, small and silt.
- Sandy soils are very easy to use.The bigger and purer sand, the greater the load it can absorb.
Large and clean sands during freezing not swell, give a quick final draft under load and provide a good basis.Depth of laying the foundation on such soils is determined by the calculated depth of freezing.
simplest methods of self-determination of some types of soil.
- Clay - dry hard in the piece, knitting, plastic, sticky;greasy.
When rubbing between fingers sand particles is not felt, lumps are crushed very hard grains to be seen.
- Loam - lumps and pieces in the dry state less hard, when struck crumble into small pieces, in the wet state are weak plasticity and stickiness when rubbed feels gritty particles, lumps are crushed easily, clearly visible against the background of a grain of sandfine powder.
- loam - dry clumps easily fall apart and crumble on impact;nonplastic, dominated by sand particles;lumps are crushed without a hit, almost falling into the cord.
- Fine sand has a grain, little discernible eye;Sand medium size in the bulk grain has the size of a grain of millet.
in a large number of coarse sand grain size of buckwheat.
- Gravel (gruss) - grain size from 5-7 up to 10-12 mm is more than half of the particles by weight.Between them a small filling.
Gravel has a partially rounded shape, gruss - with sharp edges.
- Peat and peaty soils - fat porous soil.Color from brown to black with a smell of organic matter (compost or manure sometimes) is usually a fibrous structure.
This ground can not be the basis for the construction, in the presence of a layer of the soil in the zone of influence of the basement - you must perform the pile foundation.
also include rocky soils, especially in the central region of the Russian Federation - are widespread limestone, is a reliable basis for structures only low groundwater table and are out of seasonal soil freezing.
It should be remembered that the strength of the base of your house will be provided only if the pressure is transmitted to the foundation ground, not more than the calculated for soil, lying beneath the foundations.
This article you can read about how to design your own house for permanent residence.
With detailed and descriptive narrative of our forumchanin on how to independently perform geological surveys on the construction site, users can find here forumhouse.ru . All information on soils and geological survey is available in this section of our forum.The story of our forumchanin about how he raised his own house on the jack, to rework the foundation is available in this branch of our forum.And in this video clearly talked about why it is so important to make a preliminary study of soil before construction home.