What you need lawn
primarily lawn requires light.Not necessarily to the lawn grass cover was certainly illuminated by direct sunlight.Him enough and scattered light.For example, the grass will feel tolerably well on the north side of a tall building.But in a significant shade (under the canopy of lush trees, in a small clearing surrounded by tall bushes and similar places) on the lawn of the dream is not worth it.It is best to use a fairly wide range of shade-tolerant ground cover plants or inanimate material (gravel, mulching materials, paving).Photophilous lawn grasses need to be considered at the stage of drafting of the garden.
great importance is the water regime.For most turf assume the level of groundwater at a depth of 50 cm from the soil surface.But it is necessary to take into account the obvious fact that, in the garden, in addition to lawn grass will grow more trees and large shrubs, for which the rate is from 1.5 to 2 m. Many backyards Central Russia is a serious problemand gardeners
matters and topography of the site.It is believed that grassing slopes over 300 are not guaranteed as the flow of water during heavy rainfall can wash away crops.In these cases, a steep slope or a reinforced plastic or concrete grids or smooth his bedding or soil movement or terrasiruyut retaining walls.
Yet the most important soil conditions.Poor preparation of the soil is the most common reason for creating lawns nasty quality.This fact was noted even the British experts, analyzing the bad examples of turf in the country.
requirements really simple, not exorbitant:
- soil mechanical composition should not be hard, but not too easy: lawn optimal sandy loam or light loam;
- acidity may be weakly acidic or neutral: salt extract from pH 5.5 to 6.5;
- desirable content of humus in the soil of 2% and higher.
These conditions are on the lawns in the surface layer of soil to a depth of 15-20 cm. It is possible to improve the soil and up to 30 cm, but it is not mandatory, and the desired rate.In other words, the lawn should not create the same conditions as in a bed of garden, but we must not forget that the land, however, it is necessary to prepare.There are two different in their cost and complexity of the approach:
1) if the soil is very poor, it is removed to a depth of 20-25 cm, and then placed a mixture of the following composition - 1 part peat + 2 pieces of turf (fertile) land + 1-2 of the sand;
2) existing soil "customize" to the above proportion, based on the characteristics of the place (in heavy soils make the sand in sandy soils - clay, a poor land digging add more humus or compost, to make acidic soil lime or chalketc.).
carelessly prepared root layer of soil is like a bad foundation for capital building.All that will be built on it, sooner or later collapse.This is simple at first glance, the truth turns out to be a revelation for many beginners gazonovodov.It should be understood that for many years the lawn some, though not very large stock of fertility is essential, especially in the early days of its existence.Newly developed soil Central Russia in most cases are not suitable either for vegetables or for gardens or lawn.Let us recall the centuries-old experience - the farmer the most significant part of their efforts are spent to improve the soil.And lawns - is no exception.
As for making a crop fertilizer, it makes sense to add only a single or double granulated superphosphate.Its taken under cultivation soil rate of 50-100 g per 1 m2 (one or two annual rates).Nitrogen and potash fertilizers, because of their high mobility, for sowing it is not necessary to make.They are likely to go away from the upper horizon of the soil with the water long before the grass roots of the young will be able to use them.
However, if you add up all the above, it becomes clear that the main factor of the existence of quality lawn are no environmental conditions (no light, no soil, no water and mineral nutrition).The main factor - is the man and his work.That is, it creates an artificial system, and his efforts will depend on its future, its stability and its longevity.This conclusion is supported by a fairly prosaic facts: on the lawns of Europe to pay for the cost of skilled labor make up 70-80% of all costs.The remaining amount is spent on the purchase of supplies and equipment.This means that a person adjusts their activity almost all the conditions of existence of the lawn.Not only to control the climate.But here is a way out.It comes to the rescue right choice for planting herbs.
selection of herbs
Wrong selection of species of grass for lawn grass - the second most important reason for creating bad lawns.It determines the functional longevity of the lawn and to a large extent, its appearance.The problem of choice of those or other plants for a specific region exists throughout the world, but for Russia, taking into account the harsh climate and diversity of natural conditions and soil, it is particularly acute.As one noted in his notebook Benedict Erofeev: "The climate in Russia is harsh, but fair."This is what we should always be considered when laying favorite lawns.
Traditionally lawns sown perennial grasses, there is no accident, but regularity.Biological properties of this group of plants is best suited to the stringent requirements imposed operating conditions and care to herbs.In addition there is a tradition according to which the monotony cover is one of the defining features of the lawn.It does not allow this to include coverage of lawns perennial dicots.The famous football coach looking for a motley field, which prevailed in the stand of white clover, said "master" who created this field, if he was going to graze the players and thus diversify their sports diet.
family of cereals (Poaceae) - one of the largest among flowering plants.Worldwide there are about 10 thousand species.However, there are strict rules compliance plant lawn culture conditions.Cereals should be 1) hardy, and 2) perennials;3) to grow quickly after frequent mowing and effectively to mineral supplements;4) have a sufficiently high decorative (bright green color, thick texture uniform cover a large number of short leafy shoots in the surface layer);5) to form a solid turf (to carry trampling, soil compaction, and other loads).Furthermore, it is desirable to have another cereal and capable of vegetative propagation in a lawn, when the resumption of regular mowing seeds excluded.If
"sift" through all the grains are "filters" stringent requirements for plants lawn in Russia, from the enormous diversity remain just three cereals.These kinds:
- Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis);
- red fescue (Festuca rubra);
- thin bentgrass (Agrostis tenuis).
These types of herbs are a group korotkokornevischnyh cereals and have a number of remarkable properties.All of them are characterized by high winter hardiness, tolerate late spring and early autumn frosts, give a thick, bright and juicy greens, and also form a solid turf.They are well withstand repeated mowing, respond well to fertilizer minerals, and with proper care, give the density of shoots 10 to 30 thousand per square meter, preventing the introduction of weed species.Due to inherent korotkokornevischnym cereals vegetative mobility and the ability to form numerous subsidiaries bushes, lawns of these herbs with proper care little age and serve for many decades.It is these types should form the basis for any high-quality turf grass mixtures.
in Central Russia can use other types of cereals, the main advantage of which is its high winter hardiness and unpretentious on the lawns.But each of them there are notable shortcomings.For example, common bluegrass (Poa trivialis), flattened meadow grass (Poa compressa) and Poa angustifolia (Poa angustifolia) are less decorative (rigid leaves with a noticeable bluish tint), and lower durability (live on the lawn without replanting from 5 to 10 years).Pobegonosnaya fast growing bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) would be ideal for lawns of cereals, if not for the presence of above-ground horizontal shoots - stolons, which are due to light color, provide a marked contrast to the lush dark green foliage.Therefore, its application on the ground and sports turf, where mowing is carried out at a low cut, it is undesirable.These species should be included in the mixtures as additional to the three main.
special group of lawn grasses include species characterized by well-adapted to the specific conditions.They can be used as additional types in mixtures, and how the main types of lawn in certain habitats.
These include cereals Dubravnaya bluegrass (Poa nemoralis).Despite the low longevity, inability to form any firm turf and carry frequent mowing, it is used as a "simulator" grass cover in a penumbra.Through thick enough coat and light green foliage, this kind of bluegrass beautiful when lighting is poor, for example, under a canopy of trees with drafty crown (for example, under the pine trees, mountain ash, ash, Manchurian walnut, etc.) Or small spaces between high buildings.For the present it is not appropriate shade - here better use of ground cover plants.On the lawn of bluegrass oakwood lot of walking is not recommended.
Relatively shade-tolerant and the other previously mentioned bluegrass - ordinary (Poa trivialis) and oblate (Poa compressa).They are suitable for lighter seats (light partial shade), but creates a dense turf.Another bluegrass, Poa Marsh (Poa palustris), tolerates high soil moisture.It is suitable for wet meadows, the foothills of the slopes, humid lowlands, where a very beautiful cover and a dense turf.But the name he did not fully justify, because they do not withstand stagnant marsh moisture.
white Bent (Agrostis alba) is rarely used for lawns as the main form.The reason for this is the low decorative grass stands it (due to blue-green and broad leaves), and the average longevity (within 8-10 years).However, on wet peat soils, it is the most competitive in the mode of use of the grass.Another kind of bent grass, Agrostis canina (Agrostis canina), gives too thin and weak turf.It is extremely beautiful, her herbage always has emerald color due to the thin, soft leaves with a brilliant sheen (which is why it is called "velvet" bent or "velvet" lawn), but fragile grass, short life span (5-7 years) and the slow pace of developmentlimiting its application only parterre lawn, accounting replanted, despite the most meticulous care.
occupies a special position meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis).At first glance, it is not suitable for perennial lawns.The duration of its existence in this mode does not exceed 4-5 years, the sward forms a loose, weak, combined with classic narrow-leaved grasses lawns gives a contrast because of its broad leaves.But this kind of fescue has a unique combination of other properties - it has a high rate of development (herbage will close on the second or third month after planting), high speed of regrowth after cutting, and low competitiveness in comparison with other more longstanding views.This leads to the fact that in pure seeding it is suitable only for temporary lawns low quality.
But when used in mixtures situation is as follows: at the time when the leaves of fescue grass, successfully replaced its long-standing, but slowly developing grains.This positive side to our climate does not have any other type of lawn grasses.Special purpose meadow fescue - to be "fast" component mixtures.In conjunction with the "slow" main types (such as Kentucky bluegrass, red fescue and bent grass thin) lawn generally develops rapidly and becomes density in the first season after planting.Of course, in this case, in the first years of life of a young lawn will have easy on the diversity of cover due to the difference in width of leaves, meadow fescue and other species.
unsuitable and weed grasses lawn
One of the most insidious types of lawn refers Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne).He is, as befits the evil creation, can meet and at other Russian names - perennial ryegrass, English ryegrass, perennial ryegrass.In the first year after planting it quickly forms a very dense, uniform cover and powerful enough turf.On the bright green color of the lawn it is comparable with the best lawn grasses.For this reason, its seeds are one of the most popular in terms of sales worldwide.But this herb has two properties, which nullify all its advantages in our climate: nezimostoek ryegrass, but having a high rate of growth and development is very aggressive towards other seeded cereals.Culture Perennial ryegrass lawn in a soft and coastal climates most of Europe is quite successful.This species is able to exist without the often mow herbage subculture about 5-8 years.
different picture in the continental climate.After the first winter on the surface of the lawn, which prevailed at planting ryegrass, formed spots of dead grass.This phenomenon has become a typical suburban lawn.Causes of "beautiful" picture of these spots are obvious - after sowing vigorously developing rapidly ryegrass plants shrubs and intercepting the resources of light, water and food in the other components of mixtures, seeded displace other species.After an unsuccessful winter (in the first winter killed by a third of all plant species and more) vacated area occupied by other, more winter-hardy species.Unfortunately, they are mostly dicotyledonous weeds.
Nevertheless, "the drafters of the" Russian mixtures for lawns with a persistence worthy of another application, continue to include it as dominant in nine out of ten sold mixtures.Such a hasty transfer of European experience on Russian soil turns loss of labor, time and money (once again confirms the new and old wise saying: "What good Russian, the German death", "wanted the best, but it turned out as always", etc.).One can not exclude "reasonableness" of the composition "evrosmesey" if the lawn was very nice at first, but then went to spots, you have to buy the same mixture again, then again and again (maybe you get?).The author, however, advises the reader to carefully avoid those compositions where the proportion of ryegrass exceeds 10%, and even better not to buy him a mixture of all.
Another intruder among cereals - annual bluegrass (Poa annua).He is considered one of the worst weeds.This species grows on the lawns where the seeded kind of loosened soil compaction, lack of food and other violations of farming and care.It reproduces exclusively seed dispersal, so unstable in the grass cover.In one season, he is able to deceive the person imitating the thick lawn, the next year it may disappear altogether, leaving room for other weeds.From the mower blades, which could eliminate the reproduction of the plant seeds, it makes a very small increase.
have annual bluegrass are flattened on the ground socket and vegetative shoots are short, a few centimeters long, sloping generative shoots.