to create lawns and regular care for them requires a specific set of tools, mechanization and consumables.
Hand Tools : spade (for digging);Shovel (for soil and granular materials);ordinary garden rake (for soil cultivation and seeding);Hand hoes (for cutting large lumps of earth);water filled roller weighing 50-100 kg filled state (for soil packing, sealing and leveling the soil);garden truck (for transporting soil and mulching material);fan rakes (for combing the lawn, cleaning leaves and debris);Hand scythe-Lithuanian (for mowing weeds);garden watering can (for local irrigation);Sprayer (herbicides for lawn treatment and other chemicals);shovel with a narrow blade (to remove perennial weeds);wide boards or plywood panels (for movement when working on the young herbage);garden fork (to clean cut grass and piercing sod when aeration);personal protection - rubber gloves, respirator, goggles (to work with chemicals).
Means of mechanization : mower (to mow the lawn);motokosa
Consumables : compost, rotted manure, cultivated land, sapropel (as ingredients to improve soil fertility);Black lowland peat (to improve the soil and mulch crops);Sand (to improve heavy soils);Nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers (for regular care of herbage);Lawn grass seeds;chemicals (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, nematicides).
This list is simple, but quite sufficient to carry out all the work.In addition to these tools exist and specialized equipment intended for lawn care.It aerators, crescent-shaped blades to trim the edges of turf, scissors with long vertical handle and rechargeable trimmers for cutting grass in awkward, wooden hammers for tamping turf mats and the like, yet exotic for our gardeners, tools.It is interesting, useful, but not required for purchase.
Special care should be approached to buy power tools, mowers and motor blocks.If the lawn is small, the best choice - mowers with an electric motor (they are easier to operate and less noisy).Power tillers, and indeed the need for its purchase, as determined by the size of the site.The main thing - quality aggregates.It is not worth saving.Experience shows that it is better to buy a more expensive gear from a reputable manufacturer.In this case, the quality and longevity of the device is usually added a decent warranty period, the ability of service and availability in the sale of spare parts.
As for irrigation systems, the choice also depends on the size of the lawn and the amount of money that is not a pity to spend.From the most primitive version (bucket and watering can, a pump and a hose with a sprayer) to the most complex (underground grid with a microcomputer, set the time intervals and water flow) - all available for sale in shops for gardeners.
First of all it is necessary to complete the design work - to determine the place of grass crops in the area, and their types (parterre, common, playground) and measure their area in order to calculate the number of seeds, soil and fertilizer, as well as presentlabor costs.Particular attention should be given to linking with other parts of the lawn and garden elements (paths, planting trees and shrubs, alpine slide, etc.).Problematic issues are always the boundary wire.It is convenient to be mowing the edges, it will be enough light, not whether it will grow and crawl on the flower beds - these moments have to be thought out in advance.It is known, for example, that the level of the lawn should be higher than paved areas and tracks, and between the retaining wall and lawn strip should make gravel or sand filling with a width of 10 cm. In this case, the blades will not be damaged by lawn mowers stone.
on the square adjacent to the future of the lawn, you have to complete all the construction work, laying of drainage and other communications, not to be like our utilities that on freshly laid asphalt immediately begin to lay the pipes.Then move to the garbage collection, which always abound after construction and will destroy the weeds in the entire area of the planned grass.This can be done during the digging of the soil mechanically removing clumps of plants, their roots and rhizomes, or it is necessary to treat the digging site using herbicide continuous action (for example, apply to all the familiar Roundup).If the site is large, the herbicide is preferred.In this case, we act strictly according to instructions to the drug and in any case do not violate safety regulations.After two or three weeks, when the drug works, proceed to prepare the fertile layer.
Mixing and sealing components are a mixture of soil with the help of careful digging by hand on large areas used for these purposes corresponding technique.This should be selected from the soil and the dead and the living parts of plants survived the herbicide treatment, especially fragments of rhizomes.Large clumps of soil break up, and then pass the entire area of garden rakes in two tracks - crosswise.A very important point - the optimization of relief.The mounds must be torn up, fill the pit.We pay special attention microrelief: if the surface will remain pitted, they will stagnate water and get wet through grass and bumps, even low, the mower blades can injure and impede smooth mowing.Therefore, to fully align its surface packer wheel, and then again remove small uneven terrain.Not bad after servicing abundantly watered land, and when the soil has settled, once again war with manifest irregularities.Sometimes, to create a high quality lawn, this operation has to be repeated many times.
When Ideally, you can leave the soil prepared for two or three months (or even until the next season) under fallow.During this time, the natural shrinkage of the soil will take place, which certainly reveal all surface defects.In addition, you will have a good opportunity with the help of shallow tillage of the soil or sprayed with herbicide weed stem the tide inevitably appear on the freshly jointed ground.This will greatly facilitate further care youngest lawn.If time is short, and you are sure that the irregularities completely destroyed, you can begin the long-awaited planting.
Everything that is done on the lawn before planting, it is directed to a qualitative basis, "foundation."Hurry with the sowing of seeds is not necessary.If the site has guaranteed the possibility of irrigation, sowing can be carried out from mid-April to mid-August.In later periods to engage in planting is not recommended, as the young plants on the lawn will not have time to stock up enough nutrients for successful wintering.Late sown lawn next spring are a sad sight: bright green spots to survive the winter on a background of a few clumps of grass withered.These areas have to replanted again.Given the time that the pre-sowing works are the most time consuming and costly step of creating the lawn, they need to do to really, slowly, as it should be in this garden.
All operations on a separate sowing the selected part of the future of the lawn are held on the same day.Therefore, if it is sufficiently large area and plated it on parts.For this responsible work better to choose a windless and dry day - then you will not interfere with the wind.In addition, you can safely walk on the ground, do not bury the seeds too afraid.
first using garden rake loose roller compacted soil to a depth of 3-4 cm, not more.We are working with his teeth, going for the selected crop area once lengthwise, then crosswise.Pre-calculated and weighed amount of seeds pour into a plastic bucket and, if you have chosen to sow grass mixture of different kinds of cereal, mix them thoroughly before planting and do it as often as possible, and at the time of sowing.If this is not done, the smaller and heavier grains go to the bottom of the bucket that will result in an uneven distribution of different cereals area.For this reason, they in any case can not be pre-soaked.
Since lawn grass seeds are very light, they should be careful to sow - bending and drooping wrist almost to the ground, thus making soft, fan-shaped, but frequent movement, releasing a trickle of grain fan.They spread right and left should not be wider than 1 m. Moving along a winding route, the so-called "snake" (see. Fig.).The move falls backwards, backwards, retreating in small steps.It has to do in order to control the look of the area sown and adjust the constant density sowing.
When the first "snake" is passed, make a second, perpendicular to the first.Well, if you really have distributed the entire stock of seed to both pass, but if a bucket is something left to do and the third and fourth "snake", but on a diagonal to the first two.If you are not sure of your good eye, you can go to a more reliable, but the hard way - split plot with the help of pegs and twine into equal squares, and making a sample of seeds in the number of squares, spread them with a high degree of uniformity.
next stage - the incorporation of seeds into the soil - at least responsible, and must be made with the greatest possible care.Use your garden (no fan!) Rakes in the longitudinal direction of the holding band on the surface of the soil, buried them in the 1-2 cm. The strips do once, moving from the first "snake."Such loosening of plant seeds provides for optimal for their depth of 0.5 to 2 cm. The shaft is located at the same rake almost parallel to the ground.Relax your back and regret it is impossible, because careless and uneven seed placement results in their uneven germination spot of lawn weeds and sprawl.Interruptions of work can be done, but as - in any case.
after planting and seeding seeded packer entire surface of the roller, increasing the seed to soil contact.Now go to the mulching sowing scatter evenly over the surface of the black peat is sifted through the mesh layer from 1 to 3 cm. Mulching is very useful.On the one hand it protects against birds may peck seeds which, on the other hand, creates a favorable microclimate and moisture protection for germination.Mulching, of course, some bury the seeds, but seedlings are easy to penetrate the turf, but look at his background, they will be just fine.After the distribution of peat again sowing Packer roller.
remains very gently, but plenty of water the whole area sown.Watering is carried out only through the nozzle of the hose to wash off the mulch does not erode and soil.All soil horizon should be fed with water to a depth of at least 30 cm, and if the weather is hot, then deeper.Therefore it is sometimes necessary to weave 2-3 watered for a few hours and a few tricks.For this irrigation is desirable to use an automatic sprinkler.The first portion of water to give as long as the lawn does not begin to form puddles and streams.After the moisture goes into the soil give a second crop.The depth of watering can be controlled at the edge crop, extending the soil with a shovel.Small posleposevnoy watering is not allowed - it is only provoke the germination of weeds, and seeds sown cereals will remain alone.
In the following days the soil moisture control on a daily basis - is the main condition for the appearance of harmony and uniform germination.
GABoyko, Art.scientific.et al.Department of Dendrology Botanical Garden of Moscow State University.
magazine "Garden & amp; garden"