Honestly, when meeting with the topic had the feeling that greenhouse thermos - akin to a UFO.Someone saw her, someone even tried to "make contact" and grow something.Some were satisfied with the results and said that this technology can not only deliver to your table vegetables and fruits all year round, but also become a lucrative business.Others do not believe in the idea and subjected to merciless criticism.Let's try to understand whether this is worthy of an unusual object of attention?
Who invented it?
mistaken are those who believe greenhouse thermos new technology.But many believe that it is a developer, Anatoly Paty!However, enterprising Ukrainian gardener breeder only improve what existed before him for many years.
There is evidence that even under Catherine II near St. Petersburg there was a town of Teplice 5 km long.In addition to the traditional Russian fruits, vegetables and herbs grown there successfully bananas, lemons, coffee trees and other exotics.It is said that some of pineappl
secret of success royal greenhouses, some due to two factors.One - dressing fertilizer plant on the basis of horse manure.Another - a device on the principle omshanika greenhouses, insulation premises for wintering bees.As we know, they are ground, underground or only recessed into the ground - like a greenhouse, a thermos.
path to their own invention greenhouse-thermos Anatoly Patiala was difficult and long - about 30 years.First, together with scientists from the Institute of Botany and Biochemistry, "try your wings" were made on the two-bedroom apartment three balconies.When the area of the "winter garden" was not enough, Paty thinking about building a greenhouse.Having studied literature gardener decided that conventional greenhouses - is expensive and insufficiently effective.That's when the idea came to make your own greenhouse.
with an eye to possible problems with energy, Paty decided to build a greenhouse in which no heating temperature did not drop to below +3 ° C, even when outside was -30 degrees.A number of experiments in the home - and a way to keep warm and to increase the illumination of plants was found.
How does the greenhouse thermos
Externally greenhouse thermos - a kind of dungeon with a transparent roof, or - construction trench type.Width of construction - 5 meters, the length can be different - and 30 meters, and 50 (in Patiala - 5h55 m).The height of the walls of buildings depends on the crop.At the height of the vertical walls of Anatolia - 2.4 m, the ridge - 3.60 m, length of slope - 3 m.
As is the case with recessed: Greenhouse can be partially dug (if groundwater), can immerse themselves inground almost entirely - 2 meters, so that only the roof is visible.In this - one of the secrets of conservation of heat: at a depth of about two meters for ground, it has nearly the same temperature.Greenhouse can be completely above ground.
Toeplitz polycarbonate cover.It provides good thermal insulation and energy savings.Surface of the walls are insulated with foam.The light penetrates the greenhouse through a transparent roof.At the same time, according to Anatoly Patiala, even without a serious electric light in it is 1.8 times brighter than on the street.And all - thanks to a special reflective materials.
Greenhouse Patiala near Kiev is divided into two parts.Says the owner - in the "tropics" and "subtropical", where the temperature is a little higher.Where cooler growing bananas and lemons, in warmer parts - pineapples and plants picture, florist wife.We add that the same technology and built the family home Paty.
Digging into the network, we have found several similar technologies.They add to or modify the development Anatolia.According to one such greenhouse better oriented to the east or west.One side of the greenhouse should be open and well-lit, second heat mineral wool or foam.Along the perimeter of the future design of the foundation can be poured or stacked concrete blocks.For the tightness of the joints of the foundation blocks and sealed with foam or plaster.On the foundation put a metal frame, which is fixed on the fuser.
roofing polycarbonate mounted on the frame with a crate.Sheets is better to take big to roofing was without joints or leak air.Greenhouse insulated thermal insulation film, in cold regions make better use of foil film in two layers.
Ayaulym Karsakbaeva , fellow Kazakh company for the construction of greenhouses, thermoses, gives a description of the technology:
- We believe that the most important thing - it is the frame of the greenhouse.Step columns to do at least 800 mm and a diameter of 32 mm, thickness - less than 1.7 mm in the first layer, in step 2400 mm and a diameter of 25 mm, wall thickness - 1.5 mm - in the second, andpitch of 1600 mm and a diameter of 32 mm, a thickness of not more than 1.7 mm, - the third.No foundation is poured, buried pipe to a depth of 500 mm.Their bonded pipe (rib in the 1st layer - 9 pcs., In the 2 nd - 3, and in the 3rd - 5, the pipe diameter - 25 mm).A greenhouse covered with a film thickness of 0.1 mm (100 microns).The film is desirable to strengthen the special clamping plate.When the covering film is better to make the so-calledskirt.To do this, at a height of 500 mm from the ground and set the bar in her vdevayut film width 1000 mm, 500 mm residue buried in the ground - for waterproofing.It is also important to pull the film in the beginning and end openings - for wind protection.And on top of all this, pull the base web film.
How much is a greenhouse thermos?
cost greenhouses are calculated on the basis of milestones:
- procurement of construction materials;
- training base excavation;
- pouring of the foundation;
- installation of concrete walls and blind area;
- preparation and filling of the soil;
- installation of roof frame;
- installation of roof made of polycarbonate;
- organization vestibule and insulation;
- Rooms' interior walls reflective foil;
- connection greenhouse to water and energy networks;
- installation of heating equipment;
- organization lighting.
According Patiala, greenhouse thermos can make two people for 3-4 weeks, and the construction of the greenhouse is 100 sq.m.It will cost from 3.5 thousand. to 10 thousand. dollars.Subsequently, the construction will not require additional investments.Anatoly says that greenhouse seedlings thermos pays for itself within 2-3 months, on the fruit - a year.1 sq.m.Square (1 wood) can collect 200-300 kg 700 kg of lemons and bananas.
Ayaulym Karsakbaeva advises to invest big money in a greenhouse:
- The fact that the price of vegetables is sometimes very strongly falls, so that even the income from their sale can not override the cost of maintaining a greenhouse, notto recoup the investment.It is better to make "cheap and cheerful".The most important thing - to observe the technology to save on heating costs.
Paty said that his house is heated greenhouse and a small water wall boiler.For heating of the total area of about 600 sq spent 200-300 cubic meters of gas in the coldest months - up to 700.
- When it's freezing, but sunny weather, the greenhouse temperature rises to +20 ° C in 10 minutes and lasts until the light without the use of active and passive energy sources with the same cold outside.When clear, the greenhouse-thermos include conventional heating boilers, which, thanks to the special design of the room, consume much less energy than a conventional greenhouse. "
gardeners help to save a counter and a temperature controller.When the temperature rises to the desired level, the controller turns off the boiler.After that, the temperature is kept for about three hours.When it gets colder, the boiler on again.According to Anatolia, in the winter when the cold - 20 ° C the boiler switches up to four times a day.
main drawback of trench structure is that its construction costs are much higher as compared with the ground.
What can I grow?
Paty says that greenhouse-thermos can grow all crops: flowers, vegetables, exotic fruits: «We grew watermelons, strawberries, vegetables and prepared year-round harvest.While receiving the tomatoes in January or December is almost impossible, in our greenhouse is possible ».
The Anatolia collection - about 50 species of plants.There pineapples, pomegranates, tangerines, figs, papaya, guava, kumquat and other heat-loving plants.There naranjilla - fruit and ornamental shrub from Guatemala.Its fruits are called "water of the gods" because of their unusual flavor that reminds both pineapple, strawberry, lemon and mandarin.The simplest of care - pineapple and banana.Lemons, though popular, but rather capricious.
growing here and a whole banana grove, and Anatoly bred varieties: banana "Kiev dwarf", reaching two meters in height, banana "Kiev superkarlik" height of only 1 meter - the most popular variety among the fans of indoor gardening, and other fruits.Here you will find the garden and the tree grafted simultaneously grapefruit, tangerine and orange.Anatoly says that the crop can be harvested from the exotic to 9 times.The most productive months - November and December.
Plant Care - the usual: watering, fertilizing, pruning, treatment of biological agents.For plants used forest soil from under deciduous trees: maple, birch, linden, acacia.Chemical fertilizers are not a gardener uses.He believes that this is best humus and humus.
But there are skeptics who say the greenhouse-thermos will feel fine except exotics, and "native" tomatoes and cucumbers do not like this situation.
So how to check whether a myth - a greenhouse thermos or reality?Perhaps it can be done in only one way - to build at least a small greenhouse on the technology itself.While there are less expensive but no less interesting option - to go away from those who have more than one year to grow the plants in such a way.
Even grapes can be grown right at home.Of course, if your home - a greenhouse.For information on how to make the greenhouse with their hands, says the article.
experience of growing exotic plants Gameday divided here.You want to know what should be an ideal hothouse?Meet the expert advice in this video.